Philosophy (252)

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    This book talks about the guruhood of Nataraja Guru, a true absolutist and a disciple of Narayana Guru, how he grafted it on to a global background, how his discoveries in philosophy open up a new age in human understanding, and his genius in restating yoga as a modern perennial science of dialectics applicable in all fields.

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    Autobiography of an Absolutist by: Nataraja Guru 900.00

    Nataraja Guru’s guruhood is pure and philosophically correct, making as few concessions as possible to relativistic or social notions. He is a guru of absolutist truth. It is too rare to be popularly understood. It is not the popular conception of the Upanishadic or the ashramic pattern. It is a new form of guruhood, made for a really global world. The Guru Narayana did the initial spadework here in breaking through the fixed Indian orthodox patterns, as far as he was able in his own lifetime to do so, without entirely destroying the background. His work was experimental, and his success showed the way to the one disciple, Natarajan, to plunge ahead on a wider and entirely universal scale. Nataraja Guru therefore has grafted guruhood on to a global background. For this work the absolutism of guruhood has to be stressed more than the religious or even the conventional yogi aspect as known to India.
    Nataraja Guru never wanted a following, least of all of blind believers. He only asks for reasonable understanding of the pure principles for which he stands and not in any cloud-soaring sense either, but in immediately applicable relationship with any or every given actual situation; nor in works but in understanding alone.
    His discoveries in the field of philosophy open up a new age in human understanding. Through his genius, for the first time clear sense emerges out of the hitherto baffling expressions of Indian thought, while the ways of Indian spirituality cease to be a mystery. So at one stroke minds are cleared and much delusion and superstitions trickery in the philosophic-religious field are destroyed. How bold and wonderful is his genius in restating yoga as a modern perennial science of dialectics applicable in all fields!

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    Making the basic doctrines of Buddhist epistemology the fundamental point of reference, this treatise attempts have been made to demonstrate that how Indian epistemological intellection/thinking keeps metaphysics in itself as a bequest, and in its expanding/enlarging form it persistently expresses the metaphysical divisions.

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    Baudha Pramana Darshan by: Ambika Datta Sharma 720.00

    In Indian tradition of knowledge, the historical advancement of epistemological intellection/thinking flourished through five alternative points of departure, where the first belongs to Maharshi Gautama, who showing priority of epistemology over metaphysics, proposes a constructive model of epistemology. In opposition to this universally acceptable postulation of Maharshi Gautama, three refutative points of departure of epistemological critique of Nagarjuna, Sri Harsha and Jayarasi Bhatta progressed. These three attain their cognitive termination either in the severance of the priority and the position of episteme or in the deconstruction of epistemology. The fifth point of departure evolves from Tarka Pungava Dinnaga, which, parallel to Gautama’s exposition and as an option of substitution to Nagarjuna’s epistemic displacement, presents a reconstructive model of metaphysical epistemology.
    In this treatise, an effort has been made to understand the foundational structure of the aforementioned “Bauddha Prasthan” through certain basic principles, which happen to be the deciding factors/determinative agents in respect of dissensions relating to the matter and corollary, features, and a number of episteme and alternative approaches. From the espoused system of analysis and explication for the purpose, the meta-epistemic dimension of epistemological intellection/thinking of Indian philosophy gets revealed. In fact, it is in this dimension, the optional feature of epistemological doctrines can be recognized to know further that “why any epistemological assessment/appraisal is like this?”, “why isn’t it different?” In this way, making the basic doctrines of Buddhist epistemology the fundamental point of reference, this treatise attempts have been made to demonstrate that how Indian epistemological intellection/thinking keeps metaphysics in itself as a bequest, and in its expanding/enlarging form it persistently expresses the metaphysical divisions.

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    The study discusses importance of bhakti (devotion), pràpatti (self-surrender) and cultivation of peaceful emotions drawn from the great àcàrya’s intense and contemplative study of the Vedas, Upaniùads, the Bhagavad-Gãtà and the Puràõas.

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    Blissful Experience, Bhakti by: T.K. Sribhashyam, Alamelu Sheshadri, 432.00738.00

    Bhakti-yoga is seen as the direct path to perfection that leads to the very heart of religious consciousness. Ramanuja’s concept of bhakti (devotion) emphasised the practice of self-surrender through which a person realises his personality, strengths and weaknesses, and hidden powers. Bhakti, for him, acts as a link between mortals and the Ultimate Reality.
    This book examines the views of Vishishtadvaita of Ramanuja on bhakti and prapatti (self-surrender). It studies in-depth the meaning of God, the soul and the Supreme Soul, and the world; the concept of bhakti; the different stages of bhakti referring to numerous sources that include the Vedas, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Upanishads and the Puranas. It focuses on Ramanuja’s teaching of bhakti, examining his philosophy in general and his sevenfold practice, Sadhana Saptaka to generate bhakti that expounds the qualities and significance of discrimination for viveka, freedom from sensual attachment or anger for securing vimoka, repeated reflection of God, performance of religious duty for inner mental strength, development of ethical virtues, freedom from despair and freedom from excessive joy. It understands the relevance of symbols in devotion and examines nature and use of symbols in Buddhism and Hinduism. The scholarly study discusses the importance and cultivation of peaceful emotions, and need for prayer and dietary regulations in devotion.
    The volume will prove an indispensable work for scholars of Indian philosophy and religious studies.

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    Highlighting the tenets of Sri Vallabha’s Brahma-Vada, the book spells out his views of Ultimate Reality (Brahman/Krsna), Individual Soul (Jivatman) and the Phenomenal World (Jagat) and his concepts of Aksara Brahman and Pusti Bhakti.

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    Brahma-Vada by: G.V. Tagare 432.00

    Stirred on, perhaps mystified, by Nature’s grand design, the Vedic seers pondered upon the nature of Ultimate Reality: ‘Brahman’, and how it is related to Man and the World. Over the time, these early reflections turned into profound, intricately metaphysical discussions, even polemics. And the dialogue continued vigorously in the post-Upanishadic period — leading to the emergence of many spiritual-metaphysical schools of thought, represented notably by Gaudapada’s Ajata-Vada, Shankara’s ‘Advaita (Kevaladvaita), Bhskara’s Bhedabheda-Vada, Ramanuja’s Vishishtadvaita, Madhva’s Dvaita, and Shripati Pandit’s Dvaitadvaita (also called Shakti Vishishtadvaita). Dr. Tagare here tries to locate Shri Vallabhacarya’s worldview in this centuries-long discourse on Brahman. A highly erudite, Telugu brahmin, the great ‘Acarya Shri Vallabha: 1478(?) – 1530 ad, was not only involved in the metaphysical niceties of the Brahman-related dialogue, but also came to develop his own doctrine, called Shuddhadvaita which, literally meaning“pure advaita”, views Brahman as “pure” (shuddha) Karya-Karana- Rupa: the cause and effect (of the universe), without the least mix of maya. Highlighting the tenets of his Brahma-Vada, the book spells out Shri Vallabha’s views of Ultimate Reality (Brahman/Krishna), Individual Soul (Jivatman), and the Phenomenal World (Jagat), together with his concepts of Akshara Brahman and Pushti Bhakti. The author charts the historical development of Brahman-Vada, underscoring therein the uniqueness of Shri Vallabha’s position. And also the relevance of his message of Bhakti-Karma-Samuccaya to the distraught, tension-ridden world of ours.

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    The Ved?nta has been rightly called the Finest Fruit of Indian Thought and the Upani?ads as the Finer Flowers. Ved?nta grows out of the teachings of the Upani?ads and passes into the various systems in the writings of ?a?kara, Bh?skara, R?m?nuja, Madhva and Vallabha, the great founders of Advaita, Bhed?bheda, Vi?i???dvaita, Dvait?dvaita and ?uddh?dvaita, respectively. However, there is a perception among Orientalists that while the Upani?ads favour the Monistic doctrine, B?dar?ya?a’s Brahmas?tra fundamentally opposes it on some of the most crucial points.
    The book thus delves deep into the philosophies of both B?dar?ya?a and ?a?kara in enunciating the essential features of Brahman and Its association with the world. It thus discusses topics such as what sort of cause Brahman is?, and what sort of material causality is to be ascribed to It? It also addresses the conflicting views on the nature of Brahman like that of Vivarttav?da and of R?m?nuja’s Sagu?a-Brahman.
    This book proposes to take up the question of Universal Causation to examine thoroughly as how far it is right to regard Brahman as the Universal Cause and how far s?trak?ra himself lent his support to each of the inter-conflicting schools of Ved?nta. This book should, therefore, benefit all who are devoted to the philosophic teachings of Advaita Ved?nta and its preceptors.

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    Brahman and the World by: Ashokanath Battacharya Sastri 450.00

    “The Vedānta has been rightly called the Finest Fruit of Indian Thought and the Upaniṣads as the Finer Flowers. Vedānta grows out of the teachings of the Upaniṣads and passes into the various systems in the writings of Śaṅkara, Bhāskara, Rāmānuja, Madhva and Vallabha, the great founders of Advaita, Bhedābheda, Viśiṣṭādvaita, Dvaitādvaita and Śuddhādvaita, respectively. However, there is a perception among Orientalists that while the Upaniṣads favour the Monistic doctrine, Bādarāyaṇa’s Brahmasūtra fundamentally opposes it on some of the most crucial points.
    The book thus delves deep into the philosophies of both Bādarāyaṇa and Śaṅkara in enunciating the essential features of Brahman and Its association with the world. It thus discusses topics such as what sort of cause Brahman is?, and what sort of material causality is to be ascribed to It? It also addresses the conflicting views on the nature of Brahman like that of Vivarttavāda and of Rāmānuja’s Saguṇa-Brahman.
    This book proposes to take up the question of Universal Causation to examine thoroughly as how far it is right to regard Brahman as the Universal Cause and how far sūtrakāra himself lent his support to each of the inter-conflicting schools of Vedānta. This book should, therefore, benefit all who are devoted to the philosophic teachings of Advaita Vedānta and its preceptors.”

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    The volume contains scholarly essays that make an in-depth study of Buddhist logical theory in the background of Buddhist epistemology. Two crucial philosophical concepts: trairåpya and apoha have also been discussed, besides the contributions of the leading Buddhist scholars like Diïnàga and Dharmakãrti.

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    Buddhist Logic and Epistemology by: Bimal Krishna Matilal, Robert D. Evans, 720.00

    The history of Buddhist logical and epistemological theories constitutes an interesting study for Buddhist religious scholars and philosophers.
    This volume contains scholarly essays, presented at a seminar, that make an in-depth study of Buddhist logical theory in the background of Buddhist epistemology. Scholars from different parts of the world combine historical and philological scholarship with philosophical acumen and linguistic insight to examine the issues relating to problems of inductive logic and the problem of meaning and the universals. They also address the crucial question regarding the relevance of logical theory to Buddhism, especially to the philosophical soteriology such as Madhyamika. Using both Tibetan and Sanskrit texts to delve deep into the logical issues and philosophical questions, they focus attention on two crucial philosophical concepts: trairupya or the triple character of evidence, and apoha — its meaning as “exclusion”. They examine the contributions of Buddhist scholars of yore in this regard, such as that of the Buddhist master Dinnaga and his general theory of inference, and in particular, his Hetucakradamaru, a study of propositions; Dharmakirti, particularly his theory of inference and definition of “points of defeat”; besides Shantarakshita and Ratnakirti.
    The volume, offering original perspectives based on detailed study of ancient texts and their interpretations, will prove an informative source for scholars of Indology, particularly those involved in Buddhist religion and philosophy.

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    The book deals chiefly with the Rigvedic concept of divine, and the mode of divine revelation to the Vedic seers. It is a work of its kind in the field of Vedic Interpretation and offers a new perspective and direction to understanding the meaning of Vedic thought and symbolism.

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    Central Philosophy of the Rigveda by: A. Ramamurty 626.00

    Rigveda, a collection of hymns which are primarily prayers and praises addressed to various deities, is a religious/spiritual classic which influenced the formation and development of Indian way of life and culture. The concept of divine is central to it. The meaning of divine though has undergone significant changes in the long history of Hinduism depending upon its interaction with other world religions, the basic Vedic idea of divine still remains central to the Hindu concept of divine or God.
    In this work we discuss mainly the meaning of divine and the mode of its revelation to the seers of the Rigveda in the state of divinely inspired devotion. This is what the Veda reveals or says about itself. To understand this claim of the Veda requires a deep understanding of the Vedic symbolism employed in communicating the meaning of divine inspiration. The seer-poets resort to symbolic use of language to communicate their vision of the divine, the birth of divine consciousness in them and its expression in the form of hymns. By closely following the text of the Rigveda, one can understand the symbolic use of certain words, and appreciate the meaning of the Veda which would otherwise be highly obscure and utterly unintelligible. Unless we understand the meaning of divine and the mode of its revelation to the Vedic seers it is difficult to understand and appreciate the meaning of the Veda or to interpret it. The Veda in its literary form comes into existence when the divinely inspired devotion is expressed in the form of prayer or hymns. When divine inspiration is offered back to the divine in the form of prayer and praise, human life finds its supreme fulfilment, and its attitude to world or nature gets transformed into one of reverence and worship.

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    Chinese Philosophy by: Dr. R. Lekshmi Ramakrishna Iyer 405.00

    Chinese philosophy is highly unique in its profound sense of moral thinking. The fundamental thesis of Chinese thinking is interdependence and mutual relationships between entities, human and natural. For great thinkers like Confucius and Lao zi a human being is a relatively constituted and situated self. What is important in social living is correlative thinking and resonance, complementary approach to differences, action guiding nature of judgment and the effective appropriation of naturalness and spontaneity in the interrelations between individuals, human beings and nature. The book is a prelude to study the significance of personal excellence and social harmony embedded in Chinese philosophical tradition.

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    This book analyses Chomsky’s philosophy of language in the context of its difference from Wittgenstein’s account of language, and also other views of language which are in line with Wittgenstein explanation. And it aligns with the philosophy of Wittgenstein and his colleagues.

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    Chomsky’s Internalist View of Language by: Dr. Kanya Sen Gupta 414.00

    This volume endeavours to get at Chomsky’s philosophy of language in the context of its difference from Wittgenstein’s account of language, and also other views of language which are in line with Wittgenstein explanation. Since Chomsky’s preference is grammatical or structural approach to language, which is innate, he interprets knowledge of language as knowledge of rule-governing sentence formation. Obviously, Chomsky approves of Private Language with no concern for the theory of communication which is rooted in the use of language. In other words, Chomsky is not interested in successful communication which takes place only in social practices. But, according to what we have discussed in this book, successful communication or speech act is possible by what people normally do according to social convention.
    In short, since Chomsky depends upon the structure or innateness of internalist approach to language, he cannot be accounted for social interpretation of language, which is needed for successful communication. As in this book, we are committed to public or socially approved language of Wittgenstein and his colleagues which is essential for communication, we walk away from Chomsky’s structural or mentalistic or innatist interpretation of language.

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    The book reinterprets some basic concepts of paramanu (atom), samanya (universal), ahamkara (the ego-principle) and karma as understood by the classical Indian philosophical systems — the Nyaya-Vaishesikas, Samkhyas and the Buddhists. The articles explore the study of Aristotle’s Mean (Mesotes) and Buddha’s Middle Path (Majjhima Patipada).

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    Classical Indian Philosophy Reinterpreted by: Victoria Lysenko, Michel Hulin, 270.00

    Classical Indian Philosophy Reinterpreted consists of articles written by Victoria Lysenko and Michel Hulin — two distinguished scholars of international repute — on some basic concepts of classical Indian philosophy such as paramanu (atoms), samanya (universal), ahamkara (ego principle), and karma. These essays address important debates and issues that have arisen centering around Indian philosophical texts. In an essay an attempt has been made to resolve the apparent contradiction between the psychological and cosmic aspects of tattva in the scheme of the Samkhya dualism. One of the major contributions of this volume consists in situating Indian concepts from a comparative perspective as well. A comparative account of Aristotle’s Means (Mesotes) and Buddha’s Middle path (Majjihima Patipada) is illuminating. The notion of Christian reincarnation has also been compared and contrasted with the Indian concept of karma. The karmic principle has been interpreted as a mechanism for retribution and the link between karmic causality and the role of Ayurveda, the classical Indian science of medicine, has been explored and analysed. These essays share a common perspective in looking at philosophy from within the cultural traditions in which it grows. This book will be useful to researchers, academicians and other interested persons. Even a reader who is not familiar with classical Indian philosophical texts can form some idea about the rigour and thoroughness of Indian philosophical approach.

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