A vexed question is taken up in all its details and an answer elaborated with unconventional results. Many of our pet ideas are shown to be baseless and the current division of "Aryan" and "Dravidian" which has caused a good deal of bad blood is resolved with the help of history, archaeology, literature and linguistics forming a comprehensive framework for the insights and researches of India's greatest seer and thinker: Sri Aurobindo. The central thesis makes the Rigveda considerably precede the Harappa Culture instead of immediately following it as modern historians hold although there is neither archaeological nor documentary ground of a convincing kind for such a belief. It also presents the Rigveda as a symbolic record, telling of an inner-life search, an occult warfare, a spiritual conquest couched in physical-seeming terms. This book is the first step towards what may be termed a "transvaluation of values" in the historical sphere. The next step is Karpasa in Prehistoric India which converges on the same basic goal but along different routes, so as to strengthen still further the thesis of The Problem. A final step will bring - among other arguments -- the testimony of the Greek Megasthenes who was in India in c. 300 B.C. to bear on the traditional Indian chronology according to the Purat:1as. In the resulting new light on the identity of the contemporaneous Indian king whom he and other Greek writers called "Sandrocottus", it will attempt to meet the challenge of the various questions arising from the subsequent history of ancient India.