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    Dynamics of the Lang...


Dynamics of the Language (2 Volume Set)

Philosophy of the World of Words by: Devendra Nath Tiwari



ISBN: 9788124610749
Year Of Publication: 2022
Edition: 1st
Pages : xlvi, 907
Bibliographic Details : Bibliography, Index
Language : English
Binding : Hardcover
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Size: 25
Weight: 1970


Philosophy in this set of two volumes is a cognitive activity par excellence. Cognition is that the language expresses and it reveals intelligible objects/beings of language and the meaning to which our philosophical reflections, investigations, analysis and interpretation are not only based on but are confined to. The work is fit for satisfying the intellectual hunger of those who are sick of reading the same metaphysical, ontological, theological and epistemological descriptions in different books of history of philosophy, Indian and Western, to those searching a philosophy free from our captive thinking and also an innovative vision to meet out the new challenges in philosophy. Concentrating on cognition as it flashes by language the book analyses, discusses, interprets and critically argues most of the philosophical issues and their responses by Indian and Western philosophical traditions well conclusively.
Unlike linguistic and analytic philosophies, the book is a philosophy of language. Unlike meaning-centric philosophies popular in the East and West, the language-centric approach of the book is based on the expressive nature of language. Based on cognition as it flashes, on active theory of knowledge and action-oriented view of language and its meaning, it reflects on problems, doubts, paradoxes and queries for clarity and resolve, and on that basis, utility and future of philosophy as well.
Against philosophy as subjective and objective thinking, it is a cognitive reflection par excellence. These volumes cover the courses of philosophy prescribed in the universities and colleges useful for scholars and students and those who want a fresh perception to come up with the new challenges in philosophy.


Volume  I

List of Abbreviations
Scheme of Transliteration
A Critique of Philosophy, Language, Reality and Knowledge
1. Understanding Philosophy and Its Practical Utility
The Problem
Thinking and Reflecting
Language, Thought and Reality
Is Philosophy Metaphysics?
Dissolving Force of Metaphysics
Is Philosophy a Discipline of Knowledge?
Is Philosophy Analysis?
Is Philosophy a Linguistic Analysis of Meaning or Use?
Critical Philosophy and Critical Thinking
Controversy over the Object of Philosophy
Is Philosophy a Subjective, an Objective or a Cognitive Reflection?
Philosophy Is Cognitive Activity Par Excellence
Is Philosophy an Autonomous Activity
Practical Utility of Philosophy
Philosophy, the Guide to Science and Other Disciplines
Philosophy, the Discipline of Wisdom
Philosophy Is a Critique of Knowledge
Philosophy as Method of Analysis, Agreement and Resolve
Philosophy Enhances and Encourages the Power of Questioning
Therapeutic Utility of Philosophy: It Is Cure of Illness of Thoughts
Cure of Desires
Philosophy: A Cure of Family Quarrels
Philosophy Is the Remedy for Resolving Problems
Philosophy Is the Remedy against Aggressiveness and
2. A Discussion on Language Is Thought: Difference and Non-difference Controversy
The Problem
Concept of Language and Thought: Indian Philosophical Systems and Contemporary Western Philosophers Approach
Critique of the Reference Theory of Language
Arguments and the Counter-arguments: The Controversy  over Their Difference and Non-difference
Controversy over Determinate, Indeterminate-Cognition and Abstraction
On Proposition and the Thought
External Being and Intelligible Being
Language and Possibility of Its Study and Analysis by Language
Language and Possibility of Expressions
3. Language, Being and Cognition: A Cognitive Perspective
The Problem
Holistic Theory of Sentence
Two Approaches to Language
Language and the Problem of Knowing Uniquely Real
Understanding Sabda: A Unity of Garb and the Expresser
Thing-in-itself, Sense-data and Language
The External Being vs the Intelligible Being
Function of the Word and the Sentence
Difference between Experience and Knowledge
Is Knowledge an Experience?
Is Knowledge a Product?
Is Knowledge Justified True Belief?
Knowing Is Self-consciousness of the Consciousness of the Objects
Disinterested and Interested Knowledge
Knowledge Verity and Verification
4. The Concept of Reality: An Argument about It as an Intelligible Being
The Problem
Critique of Epistemological Approach to Reality
Knowledge and Its Relation with Epistemology
Metaphysics and the Need of Epistemology
Critique of Saṅkara’s Arguments about Reality
Critique of Buddhists’ Approach to Reality
Critique of Some Contemporary Views about Reality
Arguments against Reality as Unnameable and Unknowable
Perception, Sense-data and Logical Reality
Reality: The Individual or the Universal
Reality as Presented by Language
Reality and Truth
5. Understanding Language and Culture
The Problem
Different Approaches to Language and Culture
Limits of Knowledge and Culture
Culture Is Creativity
Language and Culture
Relation Between Language and Culture
Aesthetic Perspective of the Culture
Scripture and Culture
6. Cognition and a Critique of Epistemology
The Problem
Development of Epistemological Thinking in the West
Philosophy of Epistemology
Different Epistemological Views on Knowledge and Reality
Attitude of Epistemology about Knowledge
Limit of Philosophical Reflections
Two Types of Perception: Sensory and Direct
Criticism of Reasoning and Inference
Criticism of Inference: General Points
Refutation of Asatkaryavadin’s Arguments of Inference
Pūrvavat Type of Inference
Sesavat Type of Inference
Samanyatodrsta Type of Inference
Refutation of Satkaryavadin’s Arguments of Inference
Scripture (Agama)
Practice (Abhyasa)
Supernatural Power (Adrsta)
Flash of Consciousness (Pratibha)
7. Language and Possibility of Disinterested and Interested Knowledge
The Problem
The question of Objectivity of Knowledge
Critique of Abstraction
Interested and Disinterested Knowledge
Meaning of Disinterested Knowledge
Knowledge Is Revealed by Language
Verity and Validity of Verbal-cognition
Verbal-knowledge and Convention
Arguments for Disinterestedness of Knowledge by Language
Further Clarification on Disinterestedness of Knowledge by Language
8. Resolving Philosophical Dichotomies
The Problem
Dichotomy of Logo-centrism and Meaning-centrism
Dichotomy of Language-centric and Meaning-centric Views
Dichotomy of Meaning as Referent and It as an Intelligible Being
Dichotomy of the Wordists and the Sententialists
Self-consciousness and a Resolution to the Dichotomy of Mind–Body Relation
Resolving the Dichotomy of Relation between Mind and Matter
Dichotomy of Mind and Language
Dichotomy of Proposition and Sentence
Dichotomy of Analytic and Synthetic Sentences
Dichotomy of the Cognition and the Objects of the Cognition
Dichotomy of the Determinate and the Indeterminate Cognition
Dichotomy of the Verity and the Validity of Cognition
Dichotomy of Interested and Disinterested Cognition
Dichotomy of Cognitive Holism and Cognitive Psychology
Dichotomy of Cognition and Desire as the Cause of Incentive to Duties
Dichotomy of Experience and Cognition: Knowing about Other Minds

Meaning Theories of the Heterodox Systems of Indian Philosophy, Russell’s Proposition,
Linguistic Analysis of Wittgenstein and Cognitive Holism

9. Indian Materialism (Carvaka) on Sabda as Authority: An Analysis of Tattvopaplavasimhah
The Problem
Philosophical Outlook of Indian: Materialism of Carvaka
Madhavacarya’s Perspective
Jayarasi’s Perspective
Refutation of the Theory that the Word Is Valid Source of Knowledge because of It Being Expresser
Refutation of the Theory that the Word Is Valid Source of Knowledge because of It Being the Expression of
Trustworthy Persons
Refutation of the Theory that the Vedas Are Valid Source of Knowledge because of They Being Unauthored
Refutation of the Theorists that Accept Sabda as Valid Source of Knowledge because of It as Pointer to Intention (Vivaksa) as the Meaning
Refutation of Vaiyakaranas Who Hold Verbal-Cognition by Correct Form of the Word (Sadhupada-padartha)
Refutation of Sphota Theory of Vaiyakaranas
Refutation of the Arguments about the Definitioned Correctness of the Word
Refutation of the Arguments that the Use of the Word Creates Merit and Demerit
General Comments on Jayarasi’s Arguments for Refutation of Word (Sabda) as Valid Source of Knowledge
Comments 218
10. Jainas Theory of Language and Indescribability of Reality
The Problem
Relativistic Philosophy of the Jainism
Substance and the Logic of Syadvada
Sevenfold Judgements
Jainas Theory of Language as Representation/Reference and Knowledge
Knowledge and the Question of Describability
11. Apoha and the Meaning of Religious Ideas of Buddhism
The Problem
Is Language (Sabda) an Independent Source of Knowledge?
Reason Behind the Theory of Negation of Negation
Meaning as Constructed Identity
Theory of Apoha
Two Sorts of Reality and Two Categories of Sources of
Knowing Them: Is Apoha not a Third Category of Reality?
Language and Religious Experience
Meaning of Religious Ideas
Arguments Against Apoha
An Evaluation
12. A Critique of Bertrand Russell’s Concept of Proposition: An Indian Perspective
The Problem
What Is a Proposition According to Russell?
Sentence and the Proposition
Is Proposition the Meaning of a Sentence?
Propositions Are the Sort of Things that Can Be
Analysed and thus Have Parts
A Proposition Is Either True or False
Reason for Postulating the Notion of Proposition
First Argument
Second Argument
Third Argument
Proposition as a Unity
About the Meaning of a Word
What Is a Term?
The Problem of Empty Names
Distinction between Being and Existence
Nyaya View
Nyaya Position on Sentence
Vaiyakarana’s Position
13. A Critique of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Linguistic Analysis: An Indian Perspective
Wittgenstein’s Problem of Philosophization in Investigations
Language and Representation
Conceptualization of Representation
Further Comments on Representation Theory
Linguistic Analysis: A Therapeutic Remedy
Meaning of the Word Is Its Use in a Sentence
Sentences Are Meaningful Only when They Are Used to Say Something
A Critique of the Concept and the Conception
The Problem about the Cognitive Ground of Contextual-meaning
Is Analysis of Language the Analysis of Thought?
Only Language Determinates Meaning Even in Case It Is Use
Cause of Identical Cognition of the Use
14. Analysing Language and Communication
The Problem
Is Intention Communicable?
What Do We Mean by Communication?
Conversation and Communication
The Cause of Incentive to the Production of Articulations
An Analysis of the Activities from the Speaker’s Side
An Analysis of Activities from the Audience Side
Production and Transmission of Articulate Utterances
A Critique of Chomsky’s View of Communication
15. The Nature of Language and the Logic of Translation and Analysis
The Problem
Three Models of Interpretation of Translation
Two Popular Logics of Translation
Critic of Matilal’s Observation on Translation
Problem of Good and Bad Translation
Response to Derrida’s Objection on Transcendental Signified
Nature of the Language and Analysis
An Examination of the Possibility of Analysis
16. Cognitive Holism: Cognitive Holistic Philosophy of Language and Its Practical Utility
The Problem
Difference between Knowledge and Cognition
Difference between Higher Knowledge and Pure Knowledge
Controversy over Potency of Language
Both the Word and the Sentence Are Expressers (Vacaka)
Non-difference of Language and Thought
Language as Expression vs Representation
Controversy between the Meaning-oriented and Language-oriented Views
Meaning and Convention
Are Intelligible Beings Abstractions?
Word Holism
Sphota Holism (Sphotavada)
Sentence Holism
Sentence Holism and the Logic of Propositions as Abstraction
Meaning Holism (Akhanḍavakyarthavada)
Holistic Interpretation of the Meaning of Negative Sentences
Cognitive Holism
Knowledge Is Determinate
Reason for Accepting Meaning as Universal
Practical Utility of Cognitive Holism
Cognitive Holism on Controversy of Disinterested vs Interested Knowledge
Holistic Philosophy of Relation
Thinking Philosophically Is Thinking Independently of Passionate Interests and Allegiances to Things and
Living One’s Own Life and Experiences
Remedial Uses of Cognitive Holism

Volume  II

Scheme of Transliteration
List of Abbreviations
Theories of Language, Verbal-Cognition,Expression and Interpretation
1. Spho
ta Theory of Language: Dynamics of the Sphota
The Problem
Background of Bhartrhari’s Sphota Theory of Language/Sentence Holism
Patanjali’s Definition of Language (Sabda)
Later Works on Sphota Theory of Language
Metaphysical Ground of Language (Sabda)
Levels of the Language
Gross Level of Language: The Articulate Utterances (Vaikhari)
Middle Level of Language: The Expresser (Madhyama-sabda) or the Language as Thought
Highest Level of Speech: Language as the Consciousness (Pasyanti)
A Fourth Level of Language: Para
Concept of Sabda-Brahman (Language principle)
Grounds for designating Sabda as Brahman
Proof for the Existence of Sabda as Brahman
Sabda as beginingless, Endless and Imperishable Brahman (Anadinidhanamaksaram)
Sabda is Eternal
Sabda-brahman is Creative force
Sabda is the Cosmic seed
Sabda-brahman is One and A Non-dual Reality
Etymological Derivation of the Word Sphota
The Sabda Disposionality of Mind (Sabda-Bhavana)
Concept of Sphota
Nature of Sphota
Sphota Is Eternal
Sphota Is an Ubiquitous Principle
Sphota Is a Philosophical/Intelligible Being
Sphota Is a Unit of Awareness
Sphota Is the Flashing of Consciousness
Sphota: The Expresser
Sphota Is Sequenceless
Sphota Is Indivisible
Sphota Is Universal
Sphota Is the Cause of Articulation and the Object of Verbal Cognition
Is Sphota Intrinsically Inexpressible?
Three Theories Regarding the Original Unit of Language
Theory of Letters as the Original Unit of Language (varna-sphota)
Theory of Word as the Original Unit of Language (pada-Sphota)
Theory of Sentence as the Original Unit of Language (vakya-sphota)
Kinds of Sphota
Vyakti-Sphota (individual) and Jati-Sphota (universal)
Divisible (Sakhanda) and Indivisible (Akhanda) Sphota
Difference between the Concept of Sphota and the Proposition
The Expresser (Sphota) and the Verbal Noises (Dhvani)
Three Theories Regarding Emergence of Articulate Utterances (Dhvaniyan)
Theory of Air
Theory of Atom
Theory of Knowledge or Consciousness
Kinds of Articulate Utterances (Dhvaniyan): Prakrta-Dhvani and Vaikrta-Dhvani
Three Theories Regarding the Manifestation of Sphota by the Verbal Utterances
On the Pattern of Universal
On the Pattern of Light of the Lamp
On the Pattern of Mirror-Image
Three Theories Regarding the Role of Verbal noises in the Manifestation of Sphota
Verbal noises Act on the Auditory Sense Only
Verbal noises Act on Sphota only
Verbal noises Act on both: On the Auditory sense and on Sphota as well
Three Theories Regarding Cognition of Sphota and Articulate Utterances (Dhvaniyan)
Problem of Relation between the Expresser (Vacaka) and the Expressed (Vacya)
Sphota and the Problem of the Identical-Cognition
Kumarila’s Arguments against Bhartrhari’s Theory of Manifestation of Sphota and Their Solution
The Concept of the Meaning Revealed by Sphota
Sphota and Non-Existence (Abhava), Non-Entity (Alika) and Empty Concepts
Jayanta Bhatta’s Arguments against Sphota
Solution to Jayanta Bhatta’s Objections
Mimamsakas’ Objections against Sphota
Solution to the Mimamsakas’ Arguments against Sphota
Concluding Remarks
2. Indivisibility Theory of Language
The Problem: Constructionists and Indivisiblists Controversy
Arguments of Constructionists’ against Indivisiblists’ Thesis
A Reply to the Objections
Indivisibility of the Sentential-meaning
Indivisibility of the Negative Compounds and
the Complex Formations
Indivisible Knowledge and Utility of Analysis
3. Autonomy Theory of Language
The Problem
Critique of Contemporary Western Views on
Autonomy of Language
Autonomy of Language and Cognition
Critique of the Ontological Holism of Sankara
Understanding Objects of Cognition in the Autonomy Thesis of Language
Understanding Language from the Autonomy Perspective of It
Metaphysical Understanding of Language
Cognitive Understanding of Language
Nature of the Signifier and the Autonomy Thesis: A Reply to J. Derrida
Response to the Nyaya–Vaisesika’s Arguments against the Infusion Thesis of Language and Cognition
Can Proposition Be Autonomous?: A Statement about Autonomy of Sentence
Autonomy of Language, the Intelligible Being
Autonomy Thesis and the Question of Verity and Validity
Critique of Ontological Commitment of Language
4. Concept of Sentence: The Expresser
The Problem
Theory of Sentence as the Original Unit of Language
Critique of Eightfold Definitions of the Sentence
The Verb is a Sentence (Akhyato Sabdah Vakyam)
A Sentence Is an Association of Words (Samghatovakyam)
A Sentence Is the Universal Inhering in an Association of Words (Samghatavartini Jati)
Sequence involved in using Words Is Sentence (Kramah-vakyam)
Beginning Word of a Sentential Set is the Sentence (Adyampadam-vakyam)
All Words Are Independent but Serve as Sentence When Expected Collectively for a Complete Sense (Prthaka Sarvampadam Sakanksam-vakyam)
The Sentence Is an Indivisible Whole (Eko ’nvayah Sabdah)
The Sentence Is a Sequenceless Intelligible Being (Buddhyanusamhrti Vakyam)
5. Theories of Verbal-cognition and the Sentential-meaning: Vakyartha-Bodha
The Problem: What Do We Mean by Verbal-cognition?
Four Conditions of Verbal-cognition or the Criteria of a Valid Sentence
Expectancy (Akanksa)
Consistency (Yogyata)
Contiguity or Juxtaposition (Asatti)
Knowledge of the Purport or Intention (Tatparya)
Fivefold Definitions of Sentential-meaning
Theories of Verbal-cognition
Theory of Expression Precedes Relation (Abhihitanvayavada)
Forms of Abhihitanvayavada
Association or Relation of Word-meanings Is Sentential-meaning (Samsarga-vakyartha)
Sentential-meaning Is the Word-meanings Reposed for an Individual (Nirakanksapadartha-Vakyartha)
Purpose Involved in the Use of Words Is the Sentential-Meaning (Prayojana-Vakyartha)
An Examination of Abhihitanvayavada
Theory of Relation Precedes Expression (Anvitabhidhanavada)
Forms of Anvitabhidhanavada
Sentential-Meaning is cognized by the Mutually Connected Word-Meaning (Samsrsta-vakyartha)
An Action Expected by a Verb Is Sentential-meaning (Kriya-vakyartha)
An Examination of Anvitabhidhanavada
Theory of Indivisible Flash (Pratibha) as Sentential-Meaning
Categories of Flashes (Pratibha)
Svabhava (one’s Nature)
Carana (One’s Practice of Moral Conduct)
Yoga-Nimitta Pratibha (Superhuman Flashes)
Adrsta-Nimitta Pratibha (Flashes Caused by Unseen Forces)
Abhyasa-nimitta Pratibha (Flashes Burst Forth by Training and Practice)
Visistopahita Pratibha (Flashes by the Power Graced by Seers, Sages and Gods)
Jayanta Bhatta’s Arguments against Pratibha-vakyartha
A reply to Jayanta’s Arguments
6. A Critique of the Meaning of Moral Language
The Problem
Centrality of the Duty in Scriptures
Critique of “Is–Ought” Dichotomy in Contemporary Ethical Theories
Critique of Emotive Theory
Critique of Prescriptive Theory
Expressive Theory of Moral Sentences
Indian View of Action-Oriented Language
Types of Vedic Sentences
Expressive Meaning of Moral Language and the Problem of Validity
Meaning of Religious Language
7. Meaning of Negative Expressions (Abhava): Philosophy of Being of Ontic Non-Being
The Problem
On Negative Sentences
Negation as Intelligible Being
Critic of Ontic Commitment of Language
Critic of Satkaryavadin’s View of Negation as Ontic Being
Critic of Asatkaryavadin’s View of Negation as Ontic Being
Critic of Vaisesika’s Arguments on Non-Existence as Ontic Being
Truth Condition of Assertions Regarding Non-Existence
8. Text and Rules of Interpretation
The Problem: What Do We Mean by a Text?
Vedas: The Text
Problem of Identity and Difference of the Text
Euro-German Hermeneutic Movement
Mimamsa Method of Interpretation
Mimamsa Method Is Scientific
Sixfold Approach to the Interpretation
Elementary Principles of Interpretation Comprising of Following Rules
General Rules of Interpretation
Specific Rules of Discrimination and Determination of the Text
General Principles of the Application of the Text Follow Thus
Rules of Primacy of Sruti and Interpretation of Smrti Texts and Usage
Bhartrhari on Interpretation of Conflicting Cases of Sruti and Smrti
Three Ways of Interpretation of a Text
Prescriptive Sentences (Vidhi-vakyas)
Prohibitive Sentences (Pratisedha-vakyas)
Difference of Meaning by Interpretation of Words and of the Sentence as a Whole
Interpretation of the Word-Meaning
A Critique of the Word, the Word–Meanings and Relation
9. Analysis of the Word and the Word-meanings
The Problem
Cognitive Analysis of Language
Grammatical Analysis of Language: Kinds of Words
Analysis of Cognition by a Word
Word-universal (Sabda-jati)
Specific Word-universal (Visesa Sabda-jati)
Meaning-universal (Artha-jati)
Specific meaning-universal (Visesa Artha-jati)
Three Ways of Interpreting the Imposition of Meaning-universal
Analysis of Process of Cognition
From the Speaker’s Point of View
From the hearer’s point of view
Analysis of Meaning of a Word Expressive of an Accomplished Character
Universal (Jati)
Individual (Vyakti)
Gender (Linga)
Accessories (Sadhana)
Analysis of the Meanings Conveyed by Verbs
Action (Kriya)
Instrumental Cases (Karaka)
Time (Kala)
Number (Samkhya)
Person (Purusa)
Mood (Upagraha)
Analysis of the Measures by Which the Meanings Are Known in a Sequence
Contiguity (Pratyasatti)
Great-concern (Mahavisayatva)
Degree of Excellence (Abhivyaktenimittopavyanjana-prakarsa)
Expectancy or Desire to Grasp (Upalipsa)
Favourable Incentive from the Cause of the Cognition of Meaning (Bijavrttilabhanugunya)
Eightfold Means of Learning the Meaning of Words (Saktigrahopaya)
Grammar (Vyakarana)
Analogy (Upamana)
Dictionary (Kosa)
Word of Reliable persons (Apta-vakya)
Communication (Vyavahara)
Context of the Sentence (Vakyasesa)
Derivation and definition (Vivrti)
Juxtaposition (Siddhapada sannidhya)
Analysis of “Words Express All Meanings” (Sarve Sarvartha Vacakah)
Analysis of the Meaning of Proper Names
Analysis of the Cause of Identical Cognition
Group (Samuha)
Resemblance (Sadrsya)
Universals (Samanya)
Capacity (Samarthya)
Word–Meaning Relation and the Cause of Identical Cognition
Difference between Knowledge and the Object of Knowledge
Knowledge and No-knowledge
Between Verity and Validity of Knowledge
10. A Critique of the Substance: The Meaning of the Word-meanings
The Problem
Substance as a Transcendental Absolute (Parmarthika Dravya)
Substance as Intelligible Being (Samavyavaharika Dravya)
First Perspective: Substance and the Problem of Language as Reference
Second Perspective: Substance and the Language as the Expresser
Substance as the Language Presents It
11. Critique of the Universal: The Meaning of the Word-meanings (Padartha)
The Problem
Analysis of Word-universal and the Meaning-universal
A Reply to Naiyayikas’ and Vaisesikas’ Arguments against the Universal as the Meaning of Words
Universal and the Possibility of the Expressions
Number and the Universal
Universal: The Cause of Identical Cognition
Is Universal a Perceived Entity?
Difference between Knowledge and Universal
12. Potency of the Language: Resolving the Controversy between Indian Schools of Philosophy and Rhetoricians
The Problem
What Does the Term Sabda (Language) Mean?
Are Incorrect Words Power?: The Theorists’ Controversy
What Does Potency Mean?
Are Both the Words and Sentences Power?
Potency, the Natural Fitness of Words
Rhetoricians’ View of Potency of Language
(Abhidha, Laksana and Vyanjana)
Primary meaning (Mukhyartha)
Figurative–power (Laksana-sakti): its Characteristics
Obstruction of the Primary Meaning (Mukhyartha Badha)
Substitution of a Meaning Associated with the Primary Meaning
Conventional and Purposive (Rudhi and Prayojanavati)
Kinds of Figurative Meaning: Nyaya and Advaita Vedanta
Kinds of Figurative Meanings According to Visvanatha and Mammata
Upadana-Laksana and Laksana-laksana
Saropa-laksana (by imposition of Figurative meaning) and Sadhyavasana
Saropa-laksana (by Imposition of Figurative Meaning) Sadhyavasana
Analysis of Implied Power (Vyanjana)
Sabdi-vyanjana and Arthi-Vyanjana: their kinds
Purpose of Accepting Language Is Power
Further Clarification about “Language Is Power” and “Powers in Language”
13. Philosophy of Relation between Language and Meaning
The Problem
Intelligible Beings and Relation
Relation Is Defined as That to Be Found in between the Two (Dvista)
Relation Is Eternally Dependent
Relation Is Natural Fitness of the Language (Yogyata)
Cause–Effect Relation
Relation Is Neither an External Nor an Intelligible Being
Relation and the Problem of Synonyms and Polysemy
Criticism of Vaiyakarana’s View of Relation
Relation and Convention
14. The Philosophy of Grammar
The Problem
Controversy on the Primacy of Language vs Grammar
Language Embedded in Grammar vis-à-vis Grammar Embedded in Language
Grammar Is Practice
Grammar (Vyakarana) Is Smrti
Patanjali’s Definition of Grammar
Grammar Is the Discipline of Learning Language and Cultivating Thoughts (Sabdanusasana)
Purpose of Learning Grammar According to Patanjali
Bhartrhari on Grammar
Grammar and Critique of Laws of Thoughts
Grammar Is Never an Ideal
Meaning and Grammar
Is Grammar Convention?
15. Syntactic and Semantic Analysis: Cognitive Holistic Perspective
The Problem
Advantage of Analysis in a Philosophy of Language
Two Sorts of Word-meaning (Padartha)
Semantically Fixed (Sthitalaksana-padartha)
Syntactically Analysed (Apoddhara-padartha)
Two Ways of Syntactical Analysis
Syntactical Analysis of Word-Meanings from the Sentential-Meaning
Syntactical Analysis of a Word-Meaning from Some Other Word-Meaning
Technique of Syntactical Analysis
Meaning of the Prakrti and Pratyaya
Three Theories about the Meaning of Suffixes (Pratyayartha)
Philosophical Analysis and Syntactical Analysis
What Is Philosophical Analysis?
16. Contextual Meaning: Intended and Non-intended Meaning Determination of Word-meaning
The Problem
Meaning as Referent vs It as Intelligible Being
Word-meaning in an Analytic Scheme
Three Categories of the Word-meaning
Grounds for the Determination of Intended Meaning (Gaunartha Nirnaya)
Purpose, Situation–context and Proximity with Another Word
Base and That Which is Based on It
More or Less of the Properties Indicated by Word
Form and Potency (Rupa-sakti)
Dull-witted Criterion of Deciding Meanings
Determination of Non-intended Meaning
Inversion of the sense of primary and secondary (Gunapradhanata-viparyaya)
Non-expectancy of a Part of Meaning (Padarthaikadesa-vivaksa)
Non-expectancy of the Complete Meaning of the Word (Sakalapadartha-vivaksa)
Non-intended Meaning is Known by Implication Without a Relegation of the Expressive Meaning of the Word (Upattapadarthaparityagainaiva ‘nyarthopalaksana)
Determinants of Contextual Meaning
The Sentence of which the word is a part (Vakyata)
Context (Prakarana)
Meaning of Another Word of the Sentence (Artha)
Propriety (Aucitya)
Place (Desa)
Time (Kala)
Association (Samsarga)
Dissociation (Viprayoga)
Resemblance (Sahacarya)
Opposition (Virodha)
Indication from Other Expression (Linga)
Proximity of Another word (Sabdantara Sannidhana)
Capacity (Samarthya)
Gender (Vyakti)
Accent (Svara)
Some Grammatical Determinants of Word-meaning
17. Critical Estimate

Meet the Author
Devendra Nath Tiwari, a Professor of Philosophy and Religion, BHU is a distinguished Indian philosopher. Having deep knowledge of texts of philosophy in Sanskrit, he is known for his originality in reflecting on problems. He is widely known for his dedication to promoting the cause of philosophy in India and abroad. As a member of research committee of Go Indian Project, he visited Gothenburg University, Sweden (2012) and served Visiting Professor on ICCR Chair of Sanskrit and Indian Philosophy, Mauritius (2014-17). He is a member of the editorial/advisory board of several Indian and foreign journals and has more than 130 papers published in reputed international and national journals of philosophy. As subject expert, he delivered more than 300 lectures in different universities. He has authored The Central Problems of Bhart¦hari’s Philosophy (2008); Language, Being and Cognition (2014 and modified edition 2021); and a set of two volumes on Dynamics of the Language: The Philosophy of the World of the Words (2017-18 and revised Indian edition 2021). He is one of the two editors of Environmental Ethics: Indian Perspective (2012) and was special editor for the spring issues of the journal of East–West Thought, (vol. 5, 2015 and vol. 8, 2018) on Indian philosophy and religion.
Books of Devendra Nath Tiwari

“Dynamics of the Language (2 Volume Set)”

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