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Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and Other Deities

A Unique Pantheon by: Lokesh Chandra , Fredrick W. Bunce

The book studies the 360 icons of the Chu Fo P’u-sa Sheng Hsiang Tsan pantheon — referring to a rare set of woodcuts distinct among Buddhist pantheons. It analyses the unique features of this pantheon, pointing out the significance of each figure in the mythological/theological framework and minutely describing the iconography of the images.

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Details

ISBN: 9788124601785
Year Of Publication: 2002
Edition: 1st
Pages : xxiii, 784
Bibliographic Details : 360 B/w photographs; Complete Book on Art Paper; Bibliography; Index
Language : English
Binding : Hardcover
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Size: 29 cm.
Weight: 3800

Overview

Beginning with a few aniconic symbols, like footprints, the Bo tree or stupas, in the pre-christian Indian art, Buddhism, over the centuries, came to evolve a be-wildering array of deities — in ever-increasing number of pantheons. Interestingly, in Buddhism today, there are perhaps as many pantheons as there are countries, or internal regions or sects within them. Chou Fo P’u-sa sheng Hsiang Tsan, in focus here, is one of these many Buddhist pantheons and acknowledgedly the ‘culmination of Lamaist art’. Authored by Rol. pahi.rdo.rje, alias Lalitavajra, (1717-1786): an imperial preceptor of Emperor Ch’ien-lung (1736-1795), it is a rare set of 360 wood-cuts/xylographs, representing varying forms and manifestations of the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, tantric and tutelary deities, arhats, sages, teachers, dharmapalas and protective divinities. It is also accompanied by 360 `eulogies’ in Chinese. Two internationally distinguished scholars here team up to present afresh the Chou Fo p’u-sa Sheng Hsiang Tsan, aptly called ‘a unique pantheon’. Drawing together all the 360 wood-cut images in their vividly enlarged/enhanced versions — without compromising their aesthetic integrity, the book not only captures their subtle iconic devices, but spells out as well, in meticulous detail, all their iconic attributes, like body postures, faces, arms/hands, mudras, asanas, vahanas, companions, and whether clam or wrathful. The book also incorporates the names of each deity/deity-form in Sanskrit, Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Chinese. Unveiling, for the first time, the images of a veritably unique pantheon, in their enlarged format, and their accompanying Chinese eulogies, the book is bound to fascinate anyone concerned with Buddhist art and iconography.

Contents

Preface
Abbreviations
Introduction
360 Icons of Chu Fo P’u-sa Sheng Hsiang Tsan
Teachers (Guru) : Prajna Teachers
Nagarjuna — Asanga — Aryadeva — Vasubandhu — Dinnaga — Dharmakirti — Gunaprabha — Shkyaprabha — Candrakirti — Shantideva
Teachers (Guru) : Guhya Teachers
Saraha — Luhipada — Ghantapada — Krishnacarin — Lalita(vajra) — Dombipada — Tailikapada — Nadapada
Teachers (Guru) : Bodhimarga Lam.rim Teachers
Arya-Atisha — hBrom-ston-pa — bCon-kha-pa chen-po — Yuvarajasvamin — Siddhasamgha — Svamimahapandita-Sumatidharmadhvaja — Svami-Vagishvarasumatisagara — Mahapandita-Sumatijnana — Dalai Lama — Kalpabhadrasamudra
Buddhas: Mahaguhya Buddhas
Jina Vajradhara — Guhyasamaja-Manjuvajra — Antarasadhana-Manjughosha — Guhyasamaja-Lokeshvara — Jinasagara-Avalokiteshvara — Kalacakra — Shri-Cakrasamvara — Sita-Shamvara — Garuda-Shamvara — Shabala Vajragaruda — Bhairava — Krishnari — Shanmukha — Rakta-Yamari — Ekavira-Bhairava — Hevajra — Hridaya-Hevajra — Vajramrita — Mahamaya — Buddhakapala — Jnanadakini — Nairatma — Vajravarahi — Dakini — Vajrahumkara — Vajracatuhpitha — Yogambara — Mahacakra-Vajrapati — Kurukulla — Guhyasadhana-Hayagriva — Padmanarteshvara-Hayagriva
Buddhas: Various Guhya Buddhas
Caturbhuja-Amitayus — Amitayus — Vajradhatu — Vairocana-Shakyasimha — Dharmadhatu-Vagishvara — Sarvavid-Vairocana — Vajrasattva — Abhisambodhi-Vairocana — Bhutadamara-Vajrapati — Nilambaradhara-Vajrapati — Alpa-canda-Vajrapati (Chun) — Ucarya-Vajrapati — Trimukha-shadbhuja-Canda — Lohakhadga-Hayagriva
Buddhas: Five Buddhas
Vairocana — Akshobhya — Ratnasambhava — Amitabha — Amoghasiddhi
Buddhas: Thirty-five Buddhas (of Confession)
Shakyamuni — Vajragarbhapramardin — Ratnarcis — Nageshvararaja — Virasena — Viranandin — Ratnagni — Ratnacandraprabha — Amoghadarshin — Ratnacandra — Vimala — Shuradatta — Brahman — Brahmadatta — Varuna — Varunadeva — Bhadrashri — Candanashri — Anantaujas — Prabhasashri — Ashokashri — Narayana — Kusumashri — Brahmajyotirvikriditabhinja — Padmajyotirvikriditabhinja — Dhanashri — Smritishri — Suparikirtitanamashri — Indraketudhvajaraja — Suvikrantashri — Yuddhajaya — Vikrantagamishri — Samantavabhasavyuhashri — Ratnapadmavikramin — Shailendraraja (Buddha)
Buddhas: Ten Buddhas (of the Directions)
Anucarin (?) (Buddha) — Abhyudgataraja (Buddha) — Hkhon.dan(?).rgyags.pa.rnam.gnon — Ratnangavyuhadyuti (Buddha) — Sans.rgyas Bdud.dan.yid.gnis.kun.hjoms — Avaivartikacakrasambhavashri — Rattnacchattrodgata — Sans.rgyas Byan.sems.hdul.ba — Nirbhayavigatatamoraja (?) — Prathamacittotpadasamshayacchedika (?)
Buddhas: Six Buddhas (of the Past)
Vipashyin (Buddha) — Shikhin — Vishvabhu — Krakucchanda — Kanakamuni — Kashyapa
Buddhas: Seven Buddhas of Medicine
Suparikirtitanamashriraja — Ratnacandrapadma-pratimanditapandita (?) — tejahsvaraghoshraja — Suvarnabhadravimalaratnaprabhasavrata — Ashokattamashri — Dharmakirtisagaraghosha — Dharmakirtisagaragra(?)mativikriditabhijnaraja — Bhaishajyaguru-Vaiduryaprabharaja
Buddhas: Various Buddhas
Simhanada — Vajrakshobhya — Rashmisamudgatashrikutaraja — Samantadarshin — Ratnashikhin
Bodhisattvas: Manifestations of Manjushri Bodhisattva
Sita-Manjughosha — Kumarabhuta-Manjushri — Sthiracakra-Manjughosha — Guhyasadhana-Manjughosha — Simhanada-Manjughosha — Vadirad-Manjughosha — Ashtabhuja-Dharmadhatuvagishvara-Manjughosha — Bhadrasvareshvara(?)raja-Manjughosha — Rajalila-Manjughosha — Trailokyavashyadhikara-Manjughosha — Caturbhuja-Namasamgiti-Manjughosha — Prajnacakra-Manjughosha — Tikshna-Manjushri
Bodhisattvas: Manifestations of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva
Caturbhuja-Avalokiteshvara — Padmavikasana-Avalokiteshvara — Khasarpana-Avalokiteshvara — Simhanada-Avalokiteshvara — Halahala-Lokeshvara — Vajradharma-Avalokiteshvara — Dvibhuja-Padmanarteshvara-Avalokiteshvara — Ashtadashabhuja-Padmanarteshvara — Hariharivahana-Avalokiteshvara — Trailokyavashamkara-Avalokiteshvara — Caturbhuja-rakta-Lokeshvara — Nilakantha Lokeshvara — Mayajalakrama-Avalokiteshvara — Amoghapasha — Mahabhumika(?)-rakta-Avalokiteshvara — Ekadashamukha — Gaganaraja — Cittavishramana-Avalokiteshvara — Cintamani-Avalokiteshvara — Vajragarbhapramardin-Avalokiteshvara
Bodhisattvas: (Sixteen) Bodhisattvas of Vairocana Buddha
Vajramushti — Vajrayaksha — Vajraraksha — Vajrakarma — Vajrabhasha — Vajrahetu — Vajratikshna — Vajradharma — Vajrahasa — Vajraketu — Vajratejas — Vajraratna — Vajrasadhu — Vajraraga — Vajraraja — Vajrasattva (Bodhisattva)
Bodhisattvas: Various Bodhisattvas
Caturbhuja-Maitreya — Dvibhuja-Maitreya — Akashagarbha — Kshitigrabha — Samantabhadra — Sarvanivaranavishkambhin — Hastivahana-Samantabhadra
Goddesses (Matrika): Pancaraksha
Mahasahasrapramardani — Mahamayuri — Shitavati — Mantranudharani — Pratisara
Goddesses (Matrika): Twenty-two Taras
Khadiravani-Tara — Pravira(?)-Tara — Candrakanti(?)-Tara — Kanakavarna-Tara — Ushnisha-Tara — Humsvaranadini-Tara — Vijaya-Tara — Aparajita-Tara — Marasudana-Tara — Shokavinodana-Tara — Jagadvashi(?)-Tara — Mangalotpadana-Tara — Pacaka-Tara — Kruddha-Kali-Tara — Mahashanti-Tara — Raganishudana-Tara — Sukhada-Tara — Sita-Vijaya-Tara — Duhkhadahana-Tara — Siddhida-Tara — Paripurna-Tara or Parinishpana-Tara — Janguli-Tara
Goddesses (Matrika): Various Goddess
(Vajra) panjarabhashita-Vajratara — Cinakrama-Tara — Cintamanicakra-sita-Tara — Caturbhuja-Cintamanirajni — Shadbhuja-sita-Tara — Dhanada-Tara — Durgottarini-Tara — Sarvarthasadhana-Tara — Arya-Janguli — Caturvimshatibhuj-Ekajata (devi) — Vishvamatri — Ekajata (devi) — Caturbhuja-Cunda(devi) — Bahubhuja-Cunda(devi) — Dashabhuja-Marici — Ashtabhuja-Marici — Dvibhuja-Marici — Marici (with jade girdle) — Vajradhatvishvari-Marici — Ushnishvijaya — Arya-Sitatapatra — Shadbhuja-Parnashabari — Dvibhuja-Parnashbari — Dvibhuja-Prajnaparamita — Caturbhuja-Prajnaparamita — Shadbhuja-Vajrasarasvati — Dvibhuja-Vajrasarasvati — Vina-Sarasvati — Bhrikuti (devi) — Vajracarcika — Dvibhuja-Pratisara — Mahapratyangira — Dhvajagrakeyura — Aparajita — Vajragandhari — Dharmavajri — Karmavajri — Sattvavajri — Ratnavajri — Shramana — Dhanada — Grahamatrika — Prajnalokakritya-sita-Vajra-varahi — Sarvarthasadhana-Varahi
Arhats (Lohan): Eighteen Arhats
Angaja — Ajita — Vanavasin — Kalika — Vajriputra — Bhadra — Kanakavatsa — Kanakabharadvaja — Bakula — Rahula — Cudapanthaka — Pindolabharadvaja — Panthaka — Nagasena — Gopaka — Abheda — Upasaka-Dharmatala — Upasaka-Hva-shan
Arhats (Lohan): Various Arhats
Mahakashyapa — Ananda — Shanakavasin — Upagupta — Dhitika — Kala — Sudarshana
Protective Deities: Mahakala (21 manisfestations)
Shadbhua-Mahakala — hBron-zhal-can — Simhvahana-Takshad — Mahakala-Takshad — Vyaghravahana-Mahakala — Bhagvad-Mahakala — Danda(dhara)-Mahakala — Kakasya-Karmanatha — Panjara-Mahakala — Caturbhuja-Mahakala — Brahmanarupa (Mahakala) — Krishna-Takshad — Shankhapali (devi) — Dhumavati(devi) — Dvibhuja-Shrimati-Devi — Dharmaraja — Takkiraja — Jinamitra — Kshetrapala — Ayushpati-Mahakala — Sita-Cintamani-Mahakala
Protective Deities: Vaishravana
Sita-Ayurvarshana-Vaishravana — Raudra-Krishna-Vaishravana — Maharaja-Vaishravana — Raktashula-Vaishravana — Mahapita-Vaishravana
Protective Deities: Various Dharmapalas
Dridha-Prithvi (devi) — Nartakavara-Vaishravana — Virudhaka — Virupaksha — Dhritarashtra — Shatakratu — Brahman (Brahma) — Candika (devi) – Vasanta-devi — Varsha-devi — Sharad-devi — Hemanta-devi — Mangaladirghayushi — Beg-ce — Citipati — Nila Acala — Pita Jambhala — Sita-Acala — Shadbhuja-Jambhala — Krodha-Mahabala — Trailokyaraja — Krishna-Jambhala — Vighnantaka — Amritakundalin — Vajrashrinkhala — Ashtakapi Acala — Jvalanala — Caturbhuja-Acala — Krodha Bhurkumkuti — Vajravidarani — Zhan-blon-rdo-rje-bdud-hdul — Yaksha-Purnabhadra — Sita-Nagavahana-Jambhala — Krodha Bhurkumkuta — Simhavaktra — Bhagavad-Bhayanashana — Vajrahumkara — Maharakta-Ganapari
References
Bibliography
Index

Meet the Author
avatar-author
1927
Prof. Lokesh Chandra is a renowned scholar of Tibetan, Mongolian and Sino-Japanese Buddhism. He has to his credit over 360 works and text editions. Among them are classics like Tibetan-Sanskrit Dictionary; Materials for a History of Tibetan Literature; Buddhist Iconography of Tibet; and his ongoing Dictionary of Buddhist Iconography (about 20 volumes). He was nominated by the President of the Republic of India to the Parliament in 1974-80 and again in 1980-86. He has been Vice-President of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations and Chairman of the Indian Council of Historical Research. Presently he is Director, International Academy of Indian Culture.
Books of Lokesh Chandra
avatar-author
1935
Fredrick W. Bunce, a PhD and a cultural historian of international eminence, is an authority on ancient iconography and Buddhist arts. He has been honoured with prestigious awards/commendations and is listed in Who’s Who in American Art and the International Biographical Dictionary, 1980. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Art, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana. He has authored the following books all published by D.K. Printworld: Buddhist Textile of Laos, Lan Na and the Isan - The Iconography of Design Elements. A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography. An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons (2 vols.). An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Demons and Heroes (3 vols.). The Iconography of Architectural Plans - A Study of the Influence of Buddhism and Hinduism on Plans of South and South-east Asia. Islamic Tombs in India - The Iconographical and Genesis of their Design. Monuments of India and the Indianized States. The Mosques of the Indian Subcontinent - Their Development and Iconography. Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices - An Iconographic Consideration. Numbers - Their Iconographic Consideration in Buddhist and Hindu Practices. Royal Palaces, Residences and Pavilions of India - An Iconographic Consideration. The Sacred Dichotomy: Thoughts and Comments on The Duality of Female and Male Iconography in South Asia and the Mediterranean. The Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and other Deities - A Unique Pantheon. The Yantra of Deities and their Numerological Foundations - An Iconographic Consideration.
Books of Fredrick W. Bunce
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