• img-book

    Tantra and Sakta Art...


Tantra and Sakta Art of Orissa (3 Vols. Set)

by: Thomas Eugene Donaldson

Here Prof. Donaldson presents a rich and variegated picture of the sakta/tantra art of Orissa, highlighting the evolving iconography of individual images. He focuses on different forms and depictions of the Goddess as Sakti, painstakingly analysing the architecture of a number of temples and their images.



ISBN: 9788124601969
Year Of Publication: 2002
Edition: 1st
Pages : xvii, xiv, x, 1398
Bibliographic Details : 685 B/w photos; 51 coloured illustrations; Glossary; Bibliography; Index
Language : English
Binding : Hardcover
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Size: 29 cm.
Weight: 6100


The emergence of Tantrism and Shaktism in the sixth-seventh centuries in ancient India symbolised a belief in fertility worship, worship of the female principle with the Devi/Goddess supreme as the Energy/Power — the substance of everything, pervading everything. In Orissa in particular, the shakta/tantra cults played a major role in the religion and culture of the region and this is testified by its many temples and sculptural wonders therein. In this work, Prof. Donaldson presents a rich and variegated picture of the shakta/tantra art of Orissa, highlighting the evolving iconography of individual images. Based on largely first-hand study of the temples and their iconography and also referring to various textual sources, he deals with, in detail, the shakta mythology of the region along with its depiction in iconography. He focuses on different forms and depictions of the Goddess — the Matrikas, Camunda, Naga/Nagi, Manasha/Jaratkuriu, Tara, the Mahavidyas, the Yoginis and Dakinis and images of Purusha/Prakriti, Agni/Soma and Linga/Yoni, Painstakingly analysing the architecture of a number of temples and their images. The work abounds in photographs (more than seven hundred) revealing the variety of forms of the Goddess and their widespread distribution and provides many maps, diagrams and iconographical charts as well. A thorough research giving attention to minute details even while studying a wide range of iconographical traditions and forms, this work will prove an indispensable source book for young as well as established scholars.


Vol. 1
Map of Orissa with Newly Divided DIstricts
List of Maps, Plans, Diagrams and Iconographical Charts
1. Shaktism in Orissa
Tribal Goddesses, Sacrifice, Fertility and Durga-Puja
Aniconic form and Hinduisation
Mangala, Tara and Other Navigation and Maritime Goddesses
Fort Goddesses (Durga-Devata or Ishta-Devata) and Dashahara
Shitala, Shashthi and Goddesses of Disease and Health
Shakta-Pithas in Orissa
Viraja (Jajpur)
Ekamra-Kshetra (Bhubaneshvar)
Purushottma-Kshetra (Puri)
De-Bhogaka-Kshetra (Belkhandi)
Shakta Temples in Orissa
Bhubhaneshvar: Vaital Deul
Bhubaneshvar: Mohini, Kalika Devi and Dakshina-Candi Temples
Baideshvar: Durga Temple
Shakta Shrines in Eighth-Ninth-Century Shaiva Temple Compounds
Early Shakta Shrines in Western Orissa: Kalahandi and Bolangir DIstricts
Khakhara Temples in North-Eastern Orissa: Kishorpur/Avana/Shergarh
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shakta Shrines in Mayurbhanja and Balasore Districts
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shkata Shrines in Keonjhar and Dhenkanal DIstricts
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shkata Shrines in the Dharmashala-Jajpur Area
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shkata Shrines in the Mahanadi Valley
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shkata Shrines in the Praci Valley
Caurasi: Varahi Temple
Bhubaneshvar: Gauri Temple
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shkata Shrines in the Kushabhadra and Daya River Valleys
Ninth-Eleventh-Century Shkata Shrines in Southern Puri and Ganjam Districts
Bhubaneshvar: Later Shakta Temples
Beyalisbati: Gangeshvari Temple
Kakatpur: Mangala Temple
Twelfth-Fourteenth-Century Shakta Shrines in Coastal Orissa
Later Shakta Shrines in Western Orissa
Sonepur: Shakta Temples
Later Shakta Shrines in Eastern and Nothern Orissa
2. Shakti Mythology and Iconography
DVol. 3
List of Figures (Black and White Illustrations)
List of Coloured Illustrations
Figures and Coloured Illustrations
Coloured IllustrationsVol. 2
List of Maps, Plans, Diagrams and Iconographic Charts
4. Naga/Nagi Images and the Cult of Manasa/Astika Jaratkaru
Manasa/Jaratkaru: Mythology and Iconography
Manasa Images in Orissa
Astikajaratkaru Images in Orissa
Naga/Nagi-Stambhas on Orissan Temples
5. Kali/Tara and Mahavidyas
Avarana-Shaktis on Early Shakta Temples of Orissa
Mahavidyas: Mythology and Number
Kali: Mythology and Iconography
Kali as a Presiding Deity, Parshva-Devata and Apotropaic Motif — Kali as an Avarana-Shakti and Mahavidya
Tara: Iconography
Tara as a Presiding Deity — Tara as an Avarana-Shakti and Mahavidya
Mahavidya Images in Orissa
Shodashi (Tripurasundari/Shrividya/Lalita) — Bhuvaneshvari — Chinnamasta/Pracandacandika — Bhairavi/Tripura and Annapurna — Multi-Armed Bhairavi Images — Dhumavati — Bagala — Matangi — Kamala (Shri/Lakshmi)
River Goddesses: Ganga and Yamuna
Brahmanical Dvarapalas
6. Yoginis, Dakinis, Sakinis and Witchcraft
The Yogic Cult: Mythology and Tantric Affiliation
Yoginis: Number — Yoginis: Iconography — Yoginis: Sadhana/Rituals
The Yogini Cult in Orissa
Hirapur: Caushat-Yogini Pitha — Ranipur-Jharial: Caushat-Yogini Pitha
Dakinis, Sakinis and Witchcraft
7. Purusha/Prakriti, Agni/Soma, and Linga/Yoni (Shiva/Shakti)
Linga/Yoni: Mythology and Iconography
Ardhanarishvara: Mythology and Iconography
Hara-Parvati: Mythology and Iconography
Lakshmi-Narayana: Mythology and Iconography
Lakshmi-Narayana Images in Orissa — Lakshmi-Nrisimha Images in Orissa — Lakshmi-Nrisimha Seated on Shesha — Lakshmi-Purushottama/Trailokyamohana Images — Linga-Mahishamardini-Purushottama Trinity Images in Orissa
Baladeva-Ekanamsha-Krishna Trinity
Jagannatha Trinity Images in Orissa
Radha/Krishna and Gopinatha Images in Orissa
God/Consort-Shakti Imagery
Kama-Consort Images in Orissa — Shakti-Ganapati Images in Orissa — Shakti-Karttikeya Images in Orissa — Surya-Consort and Composite Surya Images in Orissa — Dikpala-Patni Images in Orissa
Halahala Lokeshvara Images in Orissa
Jain Shasana-Devi Images in Orissa
8. Erotic and Secular Imagery
The Nature of Woman
Kumari/Kanya (Virgin/Maiden) and Devadasi (Temple Dancer) — Auspicious Exhibitionism and Personified Yoni
Shakta/Tantra Sadhana and Erotic Imagery
Erotic Rituals on Orissan Temples — Mithuna/Maithuna Images on Orissan Temples — Pleasure Gardens and the Pursuit of Love
Secularisation of the Iconographic Programme
Guru and Shikshadana Images on Orissan Temples — Royal Figures on Orissan Temples
estruction of Madhu and Kaitabha
Destruction of Mahishasura
Mahishamardini Images in Orissa
Mode 1: Demon in Hybrid Form with a Human Body and Buffalo-Head
Mode 2: Demon in Human Form Issuing from Decapitated Buffalo-Carcass
Mode 3: Demon in Theriomorphic Form
Durga Iconography
Simhavahini/Enthroned Durga Images in Orissa
Standing/Dancing Durga Images in Orissa
Parvati: Mythology and Iconography
Tapasvini-Parvati Images in Orissa
Standing Parvati Images in Orissa
Seated Parvati Images in Orissa
Shri-Lakshmi: Mythology and Iconography
Shri-Lakshmi Images in Orissa
Sarasvati: Mythology and Iconography
Sarasvati Images in Orissa
3. Camunda/Kali and Matrikas
Matrikas Images in Orissa: Iconography
Maheshvari (Shivani)
Eighth Matrika: Nrisimhi/Mahalakshmi
Virabhadra (Vireshvara)
Varahi : Mythology and Iconography
Varahi as a Matrika
Varahi as a Presiding Deity
Varahi as a Parshva-Devata/Avatara-Devata
Camunda/Kali: Non-Matrika Mythology, Sacrifice and the Graveyard
Camunda: Iconography
Camunda as a Matrika
Camunda as a Presiding Deity/Parshva-Devata
Standing/Dancing Images of Camunda
Bhairava as the Consort of Camunda and as a Shakta/Tantra Deity
Standing/Dancing Bhairava Images
Seated Bhairava Images
Ekapada Bhairava

Meet the Author
Prof. Thomas Donaldson (Ph.D.) is a leading authority on Indian art, particularly Orissan art, as he has been studying and writing on the subject for more than three decades. His works include a monumental three-volume study titled Hindu Temple Art of Orissa (1985-87), Kamadeva’s Pleasure Garden in Orissa (1987), Sculptural Masterpieces from Orissa: Style and Iconography, co-authored with K. S. Behera (1998), Ornaments of Orissa, co-authored by R.P. Mohapatra (1998), Iconography of Vaishnava Image in Orissa (2001), and The Iconography of the Buddhist Sculpture of Orissa - 2 vols (2001).
Books of Thomas Eugene Donaldson