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History of Jainism

With Special Reference to Mathura by: Virendra Kumar Sharma

The book deals with the beginnings of Jainism and its doctrines and beliefs, its spread and preachings of the tirthankaras as well as its contribution to India’s culture and art heritage. Based on original sources and with numerous illustrations, it focuses upon Jainism in the specific context of Mathura.

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ISBN: 9788124601952
Year Of Publication: 2002
Edition: 1st
Pages : xx, 280
Bibliographic Details : 21 B/w Plates; Bibliography; Index
Language : English
Binding : Hardcover
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Size: 25 cm.
Weight: 900

Overview

As one of the world’s major religions, founded on the spiritual principles of ahimsa (non-violence), truth, and righteous conduct, Jainism has today 2,600 years of a splendid living tradition — with a well-defined worldview, metaphysics and code of ethics. A leading scholar, V.K. Sharma here presents an altogether fresh, pan-Indian historical survey of this great religion, spelling out its beginnings, antiquity, doctrines, tirthamkaras, country-wide spread and, among other aspects, its contribution to India’s culture and art heritage — in all its varied manifestations. In the latter part of the book, the author comes to focus upon Jainism in the specific contexts of Mathura — one of India’s ancient cities, which not only is venerated as the legendary birthplace of Lord Krishna, but is also famed as an eminent centre of Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jaina art. Thus shows Dr. Sharma how this principal Vaishnava centre today had been a stronghold of Jainism: from c. second century bc to about eleventh century ad; how it has contributed to Jaina canon, literature and iconography; and how in Mathura is traceable the centuries-long, unbroken history of Jaina plastic art. Setting out a panoramic view of Jaina architecture, sculptural art, and socio-religious life over the ages, specially in the sacred city of Mathura, this study is based on wide-ranging authoritative sources and supplemented by a number of highly representatives illustrations.

Contents

Foreword
Preface
Abbreviations
Transliteration Chart
List of Illustrations
1. Introduction to Jainism
Misconceptions about Jainism
Jainism is Not an Off-shoot of Buddhism
Points of Similarity and Difference Between Jainism and Buddhism
Points of Similarity and Difference Between Jainism and Hinduism
Relationship Between Jainism and Hinduism
Background of Jainism
Outlines of Jainism
Conception of God in Jainism
Ideals of Jainism
2. Jaina Tirthamkaras and Antiquity of Jainism
Jaina Worship
Introduction to the Tirthamkaras
Rishabha — the First Tirthamkara
Ajitanatha — the Second Tirthamkara
Sambhavanatha — the Third Tirthamkara
Abhinandananatha — the Fourth Tirthamkara
Sumatinatha — the Fifth Tirthamkara
Padmaprabhanatha — the Sixth Tirthamkara
Suparshvanatha — the Seventh Tirthamkara
Candraprabha — the Eighth Tirthamkara
Suvidhinatha — the Ninth Tirthamkara
Shitalanatha — the Tenth Tirthamkara
Shreyamshanatha — the Eleventh Tirthamkara
Vasupujya — the Twelfth Tirthamkara
Vimalanatha — the Thirteenth Tirthamkara
Anantanatha — the Fourteenth Tirthamkara
Dharmanatha — the Fifteenth Tirthamkara
Shantinatha — the Sixteenth Tirthamkara
Kunthunatha — the Seventeeth Tirthamkara
Aranatha — the Eighteenth Tirthamkara
Malli — the Nineteenth Tirthamkara
Munisuvrata — the Twentieth Tirthamkara
Naminatha — the Twenty-first Tirthamkara
Neminatha — the Twenty-second Tirthamkara
Antiquity of Jainism
3. Parshvanatha and Vardhamana Mahavira
The Historicity of Parshvanatha
Background of Parshvanatha
Life of Parshvanatha
The Teachings of Parshvanatha
The Contribution of Parshvanatha
Vardhmana Mahavira
Background of Mahavira
` Life of Vardhamana Mahavira
Teachings of Vardhamana Mahavira
Contribution of Mahavira
4. Post-Mahavira Period and the Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture
Spread of Jainism
Jainism in Bihar and Bengal
Jainism in Kalinga
Jainism in Uttar Pradesh
Jainism in Bundelkhand
Jainism in Malwa
Jainism in Rajasthan
Jainism in Gujarat
Jainism in the Deccan and South India
Jainism in Other Parts of India
Schisms in the Jaina Church
Causes of the Split in Jainism
The Shvetambaras and the Digambaras
Sub-divisions of the Shvetambaras and Digambaras
The Yapaniyas and the Dravida Samgha
Estimate of the Split in Jainism
The Councils and the Compilation of the Jaina Canon
The Shvetambara Canon
The Digambara Canon
Background of the Jaina Councils
The Council of Pataliputra
The Mathura Council
The Valabhi Council
The Second Council of Valabhi
Review of the Jaina Canon
Contribution of Jainism
Architecture
5. Jainism in Mathura (Second Century bc to Eleventh Century ad)
Archaeological Excavations of Kankali Tila, Mathura
Jainism in Mathura — the Early Phase
The Jaina Stupa at Kankali Tila, Mathura
The Jaina Temples and Monasteries (Viharas) at Kankali Tila
The Jaina Life at Mathura
The Jaina Life in the Kusana Period
Mathura in Jaina Literature
Jainism in Mathura — Post-Kushana Period
6. Jaina Art and Architecture at Mathura (Second Century bc to Eleventh Century ad)
Character of the Jaina Art of Mathura
Background of the Jaina Art of Mathura
Predecessors of Tirthamkara Images of Mathura
Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: Pre-Kusana Period
Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: The Kusana Period
Main Characteristics of the Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: The Kushana Period
Evaluation of the Tirthamkara Images of Mathura: The Kushana Period
Other Jaina Sculptures of Mathura: The Kushana Period
Depiction of the Monks, the Nuns, etc.: The Kushana Period
Female Figures in the Jaina Art of Mathura: Pre-Kushana and Kushana Period
Jaina Art of Mathura: Miscellaneous figures of the Kushana Period
Evaluation of the Jaina Art of Mathura: Pre-Kushana and Kushana Period
The Jaina Art of Mathura: The Gupta Period
The Jina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
Characteristic Features of the Jina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
Evaluation of the Jina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
Other Jaina Figures of Mathura: The Gupta Period
The Jaina Art of Mathura: Post-Gupta Period
Lanchanas and Attendant Yakshas and Yakshis of the Twenty-four Tirthamkaras
The Jaina Architecture at Mathura
Architecture of the Jaina Shrines and Monasteries at Mathura
7. Jainism in Mathura (eleventh century ad to the present times)
Plates
Bibliography
Index

Meet the Author
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1931
V.K. Sharma, Agra University’s Ph.D (History) is a reputed scholar with varied academic and research concerns - which are abundantly reflected in his writings. Besides the co-authorship of Terracotta Catalogue of Mathura Museum (published in AD 2000) and his numerous presentations at regional/national/international seminars and conferences, he has published articles on varying themes in different print media and has, in addition, produced biographical profiles of eminent Indian personalities for certain reputed journals as well as books. Currently, he is working on “The History of Mathura” - a project whereupon he has already expended over a decade-long research effort. Having taught at several colleges affiliated to the universities of Panjab and Agra for about thirty-five years, Dr Sharma retired as Head, Department of History, K.R. Post-Graduate College, Mathura.
Books of Virendra Kumar Sharma
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