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Psychology in the Indian Tradition

by: K. Ramakrishna Rao , Anand C. Paranjpe

This authoritative volume draws the contours of Indian psychology, describes the methods of study, defines the critical concepts, explains the central ideas, and discusses their implications to psychological study and application to life.

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Year Of Publication: 2017
Edition: 1st Indian Edition
Pages : xviii + 388 p.
Bibliographic Details : Glossary; Bibliography; Index
Language : English
Binding : Hardcover
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Size: 25
Weight: 950

Overview

Professors Ramakrishna Rao and Anand Paranjpe are two distinguished psychologist-philosophers who pioneered what has come to be known as Indian psychology. In this authoritative volume, they draw the contours of Indian psychology, describe the methods of study, define the critical concepts, explain the central ideas, and discuss their implications to psychological study and application to life.
The main theme is organized around the theme that psychology is the study of the person. They go on to present a model of the person as a unique composite of body, mind, and consciousness. Consciousness is conceived to be qualitatively and ontologically different from all material forms. The goal of the person is self-realization, which consists in the realization of the true self as distinct and separate from the manifest ego. It is facilitated by cultivating consciousness, which leads to some kind of psycho-spiritual symbiosis, personal transformation, and flowering of one’s hidden human potentials.

Contents

Reviewers’ Comments
Preface to the Indian Edition
Preface to the First Edition
1. Scope, Substance, and Methods of Study
1.1 What Is Psychology in the Indian Tradition?
1.1.1 Indian Psychology and Psychology in India
1.1.2 Indian Psychology and Indigenous Psychology
1.1.3 A Model of Indian Psychology
1.1.4 Metatheoretical Base
1.1.5 Scope and Subject Matter
1.2 Sources of Indian Psychology
1.3 Methods of Study
1.3.1 On the Nature of Research in Psychology
1.3.2 Research Methods in Indian Psychology
1.3.3 Experimental Methods
1.3.4 Phenomenological Methods
1.3.5 Other Methods of Relevance
1.4 How Is It Different?
2. Cultural Climate and Conceptual Roots of Indian Psychology
2.1 The Beginning
2.2 Ritam: Truth and Order
2.3 Pluralism and the Notion of Multiple Perspectives
2.4 States of Consciousness and Types of Knowledge
2.5 Relationship Between Humans and Nature
2.6 The Concept and the Doctrine of Karma
2.7 The Concept of Dharma and Its Role
2.8 Implications of Dharma and Karma for Psychology
2.9 Ubiquitous Suffering: The Existential Anguish
2.10 The Human Quest
2.11 Self-realization
3. Centrality of Consciousness
3.1 Consciousness in Indian Psychology
3.2 Advaita Metaphysics of Consciousness
3.3 Buddhist Phenomenology of Consciousness
3.3.1 Elements of Consciousness
3.3.2 Four Planes of Consciousness
3.3.3 Forms of Consciousness
3.4 Psychology of Consciousness in Samkhya-Yoga
3.5 Concluding Comments
4. Mind–Body Complex
4.1 Mind in Indian Psychology
4.1.1 Vedic Conception of the Mind
4.1.2 Samkhya Yoga Conception of Mind
4.1.3 Mind in Advaita Vedanta
4.1.4 Mind in Nyaya-Vaisheshika (N-V) System
4.1.5 Mind in Buddhism
4.1.6 Mind in Jainism
4.2 Common Thread
4.3 Indriyas and the Sensory-Motor Apparatus
4.4 A Model of the Mind–Body Complex
4.4.1 Contrast of East and West
4.4.2 Two Ways of Knowing
4.4.3 Complementarity of East and West
5. Self, Person, and Personality
5.1 Theories of the “Self” in Indian Thought
5.2 The Concept of Anatta and the Denial of the Self in Buddhism
5.3 Assertion of Atman in Nyaya-Vaisheshika
5.4 The Affirmation of the Self in Vedanta
5.5 Vishishtadvaita of Ramanuja
5.6 Samkhya-Yoga Conception of the Self
5.7 Jaina Conception of the Self
5.8 Some Western Parallels of the Concept of Jiva
5.9 Svabhava, Prakriti, and Personality
5.10 Three Types of Personality in the Bhagavadgita
5.11 Constitution (Prakriti) and Personality According to Ayurveda
5.12 A Buddhist Perspective on Personality Types
5.13 Overview of Personality Typologies from the Indian Tradition
5.14 Psychometric Studies of Guna and Dosha Typologies
6. Cognition, Emotion, and Volition
6.1 Cognition
6.1.1 Shankara’s Views of Cognition and Knowledge
6.1.2 From Perception to Cognition
6.1.3 Advaita View of Cognition in Terms of Contemporary Concepts
6.1.4 Applications of Cognitive Psychology in India and the West
6.1.5 Cognitive Deconstruction of the Ego Through Meditation
6.2 Emotion
6.2.1 Bharata on Emotions and Aesthetic Moods
6.2.2 The Paradoxical Nature of Aesthetic Mood
6.2.3 Implications of the Concept of Rasa
6.2.4 Transformation of Emotion in Religious Devotion
6.2.5 Rasa in the Context of Modern Psychology
6.2.6 Emotions and Culture
6.3 Volition
6.3.1 Karma-Yoga as Means to Liberation
6.3.2 Karma-Yoga and Contemporary Psychology
6.4 The Various Pathways to Moksha: Separate or Together?
7. Applied Indian Psychology
7.1 Indian Model of Applied Psychology
7.2 Implications
7.2.1 Implications for Human Development
7.2.2 Pedagogic Implications
7.2.3 Therapeutic Implications
7.2.4 Exploring Extraordinary Human Experience
7.3 Applications
7.3.1 Mental Health and Hygiene: Prevention of Illness
7.3.2 Cure: Servicing the System
7.3.3 Indian Psychology and Positive Psychology
8. Meditation and Applied Yoga
8.1 What Is Meditation?
8.1.1 Yogic Meditation
8.1.2 Buddhistic Meditation
8.1.3 Neurophysiological Aspects of Meditation
8.1.4 Meditation and Attention
8.2 Effects of Meditation
8.2.1 Spiritual and Psychic Effects
8.2.2 Cognitive Effects
8.2.3 Conative Effects
8.2.4 Emotional effects
8.3 Therapeutic Applications
8.3.1 Health Benefits of Meditation
8.3.2 Yoga and Hypertension
8.3.3 Other Healing Effects
8.4 What Does It All Mean?
9. Self-realization: Illustrative Case Studies
9.1 B.G. Tilak: A Modern Interpreter and Practitioner of Karma Yoga
9.1.1 The Background and Motivation for Writing the Gitarahasya
9.1.2 An Outline of Tilak’s View of Karma-Yoga
9.1.3 The Emotional and Cognitive Elements in Karma
9.1.4 Understanding Tilak as a Practitioner of Karma-Yoga
9.2 Saint Tukarama: Self-transformation Through Devotion
9.2.1 Historical Background of Tukarama’s Life and Work
9.2.2 The Life of Saint Tukarama
9.2.3 The Background and Nature of Tukarama’s Spiritual Practice (Sadhana)
9.2.4 God and the Nature of Relationship with Him
9.2.5 Tukarama’s Enigmatic Expressions About His Own Death
9.2.6 Theory and Practice of Bhakti-Yoga
9.2.7 Bhakti in Relation to Other Major Paths to Spiritual Uplift
9.2.8 Tukarama’s Boundless Compassion
9.3 Ramana Maharshi: A Case of Self-realization
9.3.1 Life Sketch of Shri Ramana
9.3.2 Teachings of Shri Ramana
9.3.3 Ramana Viewed from Advaita Perspective
9.3.4 Ramana’s Perspective in Western Context
10. Personal and Social Transformation: Gandhi’s Psychology of Nonviolence
10.1 The Background
10.2 Gandhi on Human Nature
10.3 Gandhian Dialectic
10.4 Truth
10.5 Nonviolence
10.6 Satyagraha: A Psycho-Spiritual Tool for Conflict Resolution
10.7 Psychoanalysis and Satyagraha
10.8 Gandhi’s Transformation
10.9 Gandhi: An Organizational Guru
10.10 Summary
Glossary of Sanskrit and Pali Terms
References
Index

Meet the Author
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Prof. Koneru Ramakrishna Rao is currently Chancellor of GITAM University. His previous assignments include Chairman, ICPR (2006-12); President, Institute for Human Science & Service (1998- ), Executive Director, Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, USA (1988-94); Vice-Chancellor, Andhra University (1984-87); Director, Institute for Parapsychology, Durham, NC (1976-84) and Professor of Psychology, Andhra University (1968-82). Prof. Rao was thrice President of Parapsychological Association, the US-based international society of scientists involved in parapsychological research and twice President of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology. He is currently President of the Asian Congress of Philosophy. Prof. Rao received numerous academic and civic honours, including Padmasri, D.Lit (Honoris Causa) by Andhra University and Kakatiya University and honorary degree of Doctor of Science by Acharya Nagarjuna University. Prof. Rao published twenty books and over 200 research papers. His major books include Cognitive Anomalies, Consciousness and Yoga, Gandhi and Applied Spirituality, Consciousness Studies: Cross-cultural Perspectives, Gandhi and Pragmatism, and Experimental Parapsychology.
Books of K. Ramakrishna Rao
avatar-author
Anand Paranjpe obtained his PhD at Pune University and conducted post-doctoral research at Harvard University. In 1967 he started teaching at Simon Fraser University in Canada, where he is currently Emeritus Professor of Psychology and Humanities. His work over the past many years involves an attempt to articulate the psychological insights of the Indian tradition. His main publications include Theoretical Psychology: The Meeting of East and West (Plenum, 1984), Self and Identity in Modern Psychology and Indian Thought (Plenum, 1998), and the Handbook of Indian Psychology (Cambridge University Press, India, 2008) co-edited with Professors K.R. Rao and Ajit Dalal.
Books of Anand C. Paranjpe