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An Introduction to Jain Philosophy

Based on Writings and Discourses by Acharya Sushil Kumar by: Parveen Jain

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ISBN: 9788124609774
Year Of Publication: 2019
Edition: 1st Edition
Pages : xxxv, 354p.
Bibliographic Details : Glossary; Bibliography; Index
Language : English
Binding : Hardcover
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Size: 23
Weight: 850

Overview

It is well-known that the Jain tradition has been extremely influential in the development of Indian thought and culture. The Jain tradition teaches that there is an interdependence of perception, knowledge, and conduct unified by an axiomatic principle of non-violence in thought, speech, and action. In this way, non-violence defines the core of the Jain tradition, which has had a profound effect on other dharmic traditions originating in India. Jain Dharma is so significant that in some ways it may be incomplete to attempt to understand other Indian traditions (such as Buddhism or Hinduism) without knowing the basics of the Jain tradition, since these other traditions developed in an ongoing dialogue with the insights and wisdom of Jain respondents and visionaries.
This book enables the reader to enjoy a comprehensive journey into the intricate world of Jain thought and culture in a way that is philosophical in its compelling rationality, deeply spiritual in its revelations, yet accessible in its language. The organization of this book allows the reader to engage in an overview of the central teachings of the Jain tradition, but also to ascertain the profundity of its depths. It can be read with equal efficacy in succession from beginning to end, or pursued by individual topics of interest to the reader. Either strategy will have the same effect: a systematic understanding of what the timeless teachings of Jain thinkers have to say about the universal issues of the human condition – and how we might understand our harmonious relationship with other living entities as a powerful and effective spiritual journey.

Contents

Acharya Sushil Kumar                                                                               

Foreword – Dr. Rita Sherma                                                                     

Prologue – Dr. Jeffery D. Long                                                                 

Preface                                                                                                         

Acknowledgments                                                                                       

Editor’s Note                                                                                                

Scheme of Transliteration                                                                         

 

  1. Characteristics of Jain Dharma (Jain Dharma ka Svarupa) 

Wisdom and Ethics Described in the Sthanangasutra                

  1. A Glimpse into the Past (Atita ka Jhalaka)                               

Lord Rshiabhadeva

Jain Dharma in the Ancient Hindu Upanishads

Jain Dharma in the Medieval Hindu Puranas

Tirthankaras of Jain Dharma

Lord Arishtanemi (Lord Neminatha)

Lord Parshvanatha

Lord Mahavira                                                                                    

Lord Mahavira’s Benevolent Community

Lord Mahavira’s Contributions

Religious Leaders during the Time of Lord Mahavira

Lord Mahavira and Lord Buddha

Mahavira and Buddha: Similarities and Dissimilarities

Similar Inspiration between Buddhist and Jain Doctrines

The Seven Ninhavas and Other Opponents of Lord Mahavira

Divisive Issues

Jain and Vedic Philosophies Supplement Each Other for Completeness

Influence of the Shramana Tradition on Other Religions

Hardships Endured by the Shramana Community

Jain Shramana Proliferation

Lord Mahavira and His Contemporary Society

Supporting the Popular Language of the People

Lord Mahavira’s Message to the World

The Disciple Tradition                                                                       

  1. Path to Salvation – Right Perception (Mukti-Marga – Samyag-Darshana)          

Right Perception (Samyag-Darshana)

Eight Elements of Samyag-Darshana                                            

  1. Right Knowledge (Samyag-Jnana)                                             

Genuine versus Spurious Knowledge

Knowledge or Wisdom (Jnana)                                                       

Empirical Knowledge (Mati-Jnana)                                                 

Scriptural Knowledge (Shruta-Jnana)                                            

Difference between Mati-Jnana and Shruta-Jnana

Authenticity of Shruta

Jain Scriptures and Their Sources

Clairvoyant Knowledge (Avadhi-Jnana)

Mind-Reading Knowledge (Manah-Paryaya-Jnana)

Supreme Knowledge (Kevala-Jnana)

Discussion of Evidence Epistemology (Pramana-Mimamsa)

Alternate Classification of Pramana                                                

  1. Analysis of the Universe (Vishva ka Vishleshana)                 

Arrangement of Substance (Dravya-Vyavastha)                          

Purpose of Analyzing Substance (Dravya Mimamsa ka Uddeshya)

What Are Substances? (Dravyas ki Ruparekha)

Essence of the Universe (Vishva ka Mula)

Constituents of Substance (Dravya Prthakkarana)                      

Living Substance (Jiva-Dravya)

Non-Living Substances (Ajiva-Dravya)

The Substance That Is the Medium of Motion (Dharma-Dravya)

The Substance That Is the Medium of Rest (Adharma-Dravya)

The Substance That Is Space (Akasha-Dravya)

The Substance That Is Time (Kala-Dravya)

Non-Sentient, Tiny Material Substance (Pudgala-Dravya)

  1. The Discussion of the Fundamental Truth (Tattva-Carca)   

Soul: The Living and Sentient Entity (Jiva)

The Non-Living and Non-Sentient Substance (Ajiva)                  

The Righteous and Auspicious Karma (Punya)

The Wickedness Demerit That Causes Inauspicious Sinful Karma (Papa)

The Influx of Karma upon the Soul (Ashrava)

The Cessation of the Influx of Karma upon the Soul (Samvara)

The Dissociation of the Soul from Adhered Karmic Matter (Nirjara)

The Bondage of Karma to the Soul (Bandha)

The Ultimate Liberation (Moksha)                                                   

  1. Fundamental Doctrines: Nayavada, Anekantavada, and Syadvada

The Doctrine of Fundamental Principles (Nayavada)                  

The Essence of Viewpoints: Naya-Svarupa

The Truth behind Naya (Naya ki Satyata)

The Classification of Naya (Naya-Bheda)

Viewpoints That Deal with the Nature of Substances (Dravyarthika-Nayas)

Viewpoints That Deal with Modalities (Paryayarthika-Nayas)

The Doctrine of Non-Absolutism (Anekantavada)

The Doctrine of Qualified Assertion (Syadvada)

The Language Policy (Bhasha-Niti)                                                

Methodology for Systematic Formulation (Nikshepa-Vidhana)

  1. Jain Psychology (Manovijnana)                                                  

Senses (Indriya)                                                                                 

The Objects Perceived by the Senses (Indriyon ke Vishaya)

Mind (Mana)

The Karmic Stains That Obstruct the Jiva (Leshyas)

The Passions and Karmic Bondage (Kashaya)                            

The Passion of Anger (Krodha-Kashaya)

The Passion of Egoism (Mana-Kashaya)

The Passion of Deception (Maya-Kashaya)

The Passion of Greed (Lobha-Kashaya)

Classification of Karmic Bondage (Bandha)                                  

Bonding due to Anger (Krodha-Kashaya Bandha)

Bonding due to Egoism (Mana-Kashaya Bandha)

Bonding due to Deception (Maya-Kashaya Bandha)

Bonding due to Greed (Lobha-Kashaya Bandha)

  1. Jain Yoga: Meditation and Union with Divinity                       

Yoga in Dharmic Traditions                                                              

The Evolution of Yoga Practices

Yoga and Jain Dharma

Characteristics of Yoga Practitioners

Yoga of Mind, Body, and Speech                                                   

Yoga of the Mind (Mana-Yoga)

Yoga of the Body (Kaya-Yoga)

Yoga of Speech (Vacana-Yoga)

Types of Yoga

Spiritual Yoga (Adhyatma-Yoga)                                                     

Five States of Mind

The Five Mental Anguishes (Klesha)

The Eight Constituents of Jain Yoga (Ashtanga-Yoga)               

The Supreme Vows (Mahavrata)

The Principles of Yoga (Yoga-Samgraha)

The Bodily Deficiencies (Kaya-Klesha)

Breathing Exercise with Restrained Thoughts (Bhava-Pranayama)

Withdrawing Within (Prati-Sanlinata)

Firm Concentration (Dharana)

Focused Contemplation or Meditation (Dhyana)

Deep Meditation (Samadhi)

The Practice of Yogic Meditation (Dhyana-Yoga Sadhana)

Jain Yoga and Hatha-Yoga

Yoga, Meditation, and Penance: Three Connected Spiritual Practices

  1. Spiritual Progression (Adhyatmika Utkranti)

Fourteen Virtuous Stages                                                                 

Stages of Alienation from One’s Soul (Bahiratma)

Internalized Stages Towards One’s Soul (Antaratma)

Paramatma Stages: The Soul at Its Highest

  1. Doctrine of Karma (Karmavada)

Classifications of Karmas                                                                 

Knowledge-Inhibiting Karma (Jnanavaraniya-Karma)

Perception- or Awareness-Inhibiting Karma (Darshanavaraniya-Karma)

Hindrance-Causing Karma (Antaraya-Karma)

Delusion-Causing Karma (Mohaniya-Karma)

Karma That Causes Physical Experiences (Vedaniya-Karma)

Lifespan-Affecting Karma (Ayu- or Ayushya-Karma)

Designation of the Jiva Body-Type Karma (Nama-Karma)

Clan of Birth Karma (Gotra-Karma)

States of Karma

Benefits of Karma Shedding (Karma-kashaya)

The Process of Transmigration (Punarjanma)                              

  1. Right Conduct and Doctrine of Ethics (Samyag-Caritra and Nitishastra)

Right Conduct (Samyag-Caritra) and Its Importance

The Discussion on Vows (Vrata)

Basic Vices (Doshas)

Non-Violence (Ahimsa)                                                                     

The Foundation of Right Conduct

Two Kinds of Dharma: Householders and Ascetics

Householder Ethics (Grihastha-Dharma)                                       

Precepts of a Jain Householder

Minor Vows for Householder Living (Anuvrata)

Supplementary Guidelines for Household Living

Shravaka and Shravika Types of Jain Householder

Ethical Living of Householders (Shravaka-Shravika Jivana-Niti)

Social Demeanor

Jain Householder Etiquette                                                              

  1. The Virtues of Jain Mendicants (Nirgrantha Dharma)

 Renunciation (Tyaga)                                                                       

The Five Supreme Vows for Ascetics (Mahavratas)

Five Behavioral Constraints (Samitis)

Protective Measures for the Mind and Senses (Gupti)

Prohibitions (Anacirna)

Twelve Reflective Contemplations (Dvadasha Bhavana)

Four Contemplations for Character Building (Cara Bhavana)

Ten Principles of Dharma (Dasha-Vidhi-Dharma)

Types of Spiritual Mendicants (Nirgranthas)

Spiritual Perseverance of a Mendicant (Sadhana)                       

The Rigor of Spiritual Perseverance (Sadhana ki Kathorata)

The Basis for Rigorous Spiritual Perseverance (Sadhana ka Adhara)

Six Obligatory Duties (Avashyaka Kriyas)                                     

The Art of Dying (Sallekhana Vrata)                                               

  1. The Lineage of Jain Dharma (Jain Dharma ki Parampara)

Contributions by Jain Acharyas in the Spiritual Evolution of India

Contributions by Kings and Rulers                                                  

King Cetaka and Other Rulers

Kings Shrenika and Kunika

Emperor Candragupta Maurya

Emperor Ashoka

Emperor Samprati

Kharavela, Emperor of Kalinga

King Kalabhravamshi and Kalacuri Dynasty

Kings of Hoyashala Dynasty

Kings of Ganga Dynasty

Camundaraya

King Shivakoti

King Amane

The Supreme Arhata (Paramarhata) Kumarapala

Rulers of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty and Amoghavarsha

Vanaraja Cavada and King Calukya

Siddharaja Jayasimha

Ministers and Generals

Growth of Jain Religion                                                                     

  1. Summary of the Distinct Merits of Jain Dharma

         Appendix: Jain Mantras                                                                 

The Art and Science behind Mantra Formulation

Namokara (Namaskara) Mahamantra

Mangala-Patha (Cattari Mangalam)

Kshamapana-Sutra (Forgiveness Couplet)

Rishi-Mandala Mantra

Sarasvati Mahamantra

Mahalakshmi Mantra

Pratikramanasutra

Logassasutra – Caturvimshit Prayer

Guru-Vandana                                                                                    

Lord Shantinatha Mantra

Simple Recitations for Meditation                                                    

         Glossary of Terms                                                                             

         Bibliography                                                                                    

 Index

Meet the Author
avatar-author
Parveen Jain, PhD, is a prolific entrepreneur who has founded and led multiple technology companies in the Silicon Valley. He has ten technology patents, has contributed to over fifty technical publications, and has been recognized with multiple awards for his philanthropic and professional work. For over thirty years, Dr. Jain has been a leader in the vibrant Jain and Hindu communities of the San Francisco Bay Area. He is an ordained shravaka (householder) disciple of Acharya Sushil Kumar (Guruji), the source of his religious and spiritual education and the motivation for Dr. Jain’s erudition in the Jain tradition. Dr. Jain is deeply involved in the growth of Siddhachalam, the first Jain Tirtha (a pilgrimage, and the abode of enlightened spirituality) outside of India, and considers that, along with leading the effort to build a Jain temple in the San Francisco Bay Area, to be his foremost accomplishment. Inspired by Guruji, he is passionate about applying Jain principles and scriptures to everyday practice for the growing global Jain community and beyond, for current and future generations.
Books of Parveen Jain

“An Introduction to Jain Philosophy”

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