The Six Ways of Know...
The Six Ways of KnowingA Critical Study of the Vedanta Theory of Knowledge by: Dhirendra Mohan Datta
This volume critically examines six epistemological theories of the Advaita school of Vedanta: pratyaksha (perception), upamana (comparison), anupalabdhi (non-cognition), anumana (inference), arthapatti (postulation) and shabda (testimony), highlighting the problems, concepts and theories of the Vedantins within the focus of modern Western thought.
Year Of Publication: 2017
Edition: Fresh retypesetted and printed in 2018
Pages : 360p.
Language : English
Binding : Paperback
Publisher: D.K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
This volume critically examines six epistemological theories of the Advaita school of Vedanta: pratyaksha (perception), upamana (comparison), anupalabdhi (non-cognition), anumana (inference), arthapatti (postulation) and shabda (testimony). To make the study smooth and easy, it deliberates on two other concepts prama (conceptions of knowledge) and pramana (methods of knowing) as these underlie all epistemological discussions.
The book highlights the problems, concepts and theories of the Vedantins within the focus of modern Western thought. The method adopted is one of critical analysis, comparison and evaluation. It also tries to formulate some important epistemological doctrines of Advaita Vedanta and show by some criticism that, if rightly understood, they are valuable contributions to the philosophy of the world.
The book, targeting sceptical students trained in Western philosophy and an imagined tribunal of Western philosophers, tries to make a case for Advaita Vedanta, and thus is expected to usher keen interest among the students, teachers and followers of Advaita Vedanta.
Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Introduction: Prama and Pramana
1. Perception and Metaphysics
2. The Definition of Perception (Pratyaksha)
3. The Psychology of Perception
The Conception of Sense (Indriya) and Its Function
The Conception of Mind (Manas or Antahkarana)
The Function of Mind (Antahkarana) in Perception
4. The Place and Function of the Self in Perception
5. Objects of Perception
Indeterminate (Nirvikalpaka) Perception
Determinate (Savikalpaka) Perception
Perception of Time
Perception of Universals, Relations, etc.
The Nyaya Theory of Extraordinary (Alaukika)
6. Comparison (Upamana)
Is Upamana an Inference?
Is It a Perception?
Is It Partly a Perception and Partly a Memory?
The Nyaya View
The Evidence of Western Logic : Is Upamana an Immediate Inference?
7. Non-cognition (Anupalabdhi)
The Problem of Anupalabdhi
The Views of the Prabhakaras and the Samkhyas
The Views of the Naiyayikas
The Views of the Bhattas and the Advaitins
The Objects of Non-Perception: The Four Kinds of Non-Existence
Critical Estimation of Anupalabdhi
8. Inference (Anumana)
The Meaning of Anumana
The Conception of Vyapti
How Is Vyapti to Be Ascertained?
The Function of Vyapti: The Psychology of Inference
Does Inference Yield Any New Knowledge?
The Form of the Syllogism
The Classification of Inference
The Psychological Conditions of Inference: The Theory of Pakshata
9. Postulation (Arthapatti)
Is not Arthapatti an Anumana?
Are All Inferences Reducible to Arthapatti
Criticism and Conclusion
10. Testimony (Shabda)
11. The Process of Shabda-jnana
Sensations of Sound
12. The Perception of Word Symbols
How Sound Series Is Perceived?
The Theory of Sphota
The Advaita View and Criticism
13. Words and Meanings
Words as Symbols
Is Primary Meaning Particular or Universal?: Five Views
The Advaita View Critically Considered
Is Any Word Non-connotative?
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Meanings
14. The Sentence and Its Meaning
The Nature of a Sentence
Does Construction Precede Expression? Two Views
Conditions of Significant Combination
The Conception of a Proposition
Do All Propositions Contain SubstantiveAdjective Relation?
Some Identity Propositions: Advaita View and Western Criticism
15. The Objective Reference in a Sentence
16. The Validity of Verbal Knowledge