In the pattern of Bertrand Russell’s History of Western Philosophy, this book focuses on the evolution of philosophy in India with reference to socio-political and economic conditions, through which one can learn that life and thought are invariably interconnected with polity and persons, economy and environment. The first chapter demonstrates the socio-political, geographical and racial causes for the formation of human thinking, followed by a chapter on what philosophy is and the nature of Indian philosophy. The Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, and about five schools of Vedanta, including Kashmir Shaivism were discussed at length in three different chapters. Another three chapters deal with Carvakas, Jainism and Buddhism; and one on Samkhya and Vaisheshika. This book is unique in the sense that it contains a review in the conclusion; and M.N. Roy has evaluated the philosophical heritage in its introduction. M.N. Roy has remarked that the “chapters are of great importance methodologically, and as such constitute the more valuable part of a commendable work of scholarship.” It is useful as a reference book for students and scholars as well as general readers interested in understanding the evolution of ancient Indian thought, and broadens the horizons of their knowledge of Indian philosophy.