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  • The Six Ways of Knowing

The Six Ways of Knowing

A Critical Study of the Vedanta Theory of Knowledge below

About This Book
This volume critically examines six epistemological theories of the Advaita school of Vedanta: pratyaksha (perception), upamana (comparison), anupalabdhi (non-cognition), anumana (inference), arthapatti (postulation) and shabda (testimony). To make the study smooth and easy, it deliberates on two other concepts prama (conceptions of knowledge) and pramana (methods of knowing) as these underlie all epistemological discussions.
The book highlights the problems, concepts and theories of the Vedantins within the focus of modern Western thought. The method adopted is one of critical analysis, comparison and evaluation. It also tries to formulate some important epistemological doctrines of Advaita Vedanta and show by some criticism that, if rightly understood, they are valuable contributions to the philosophy of the world.
The book, targeting sceptical students trained in Western philosophy and an imagined tribunal of Western philosophers, tries to make a case for Advaita Vedanta, and thus is expected to usher keen interest among the students, teachers and followers  of Advaita Vedanta.
  • Binding: : Paperback
  • 13 Digit ISBN : 9788124609071
  • Edition : Fresh retypesetted and printed in 2018
  • Year : 2018
  • Pages : 360p.
  • Weight (approx.) : 600
Preface to the First Edition 
Preface to the Second Edition 
Introduction: Prama and Pramana 
Part 1
Perception (Pratyaksha)
1. Perception and Metaphysics 
2. The Definition of Perception (Pratyaksha) 
3. The Psychology of Perception 
The Conception of Sense (Indriya) and Its Function 
The Conception of Mind (Manas or Antahkarana) 
The Function of Mind (Antahkarana) in Perception 
4. The Place and Function of the Self in Perception 
5. Objects of Perception 
Indeterminate (Nirvikalpaka) Perception 
Determinate (Savikalpaka) Perception 
Perception of Time 
Perception of Universals, Relations, etc. 
The Nyaya Theory of Extraordinary (Alaukika) 
Internal Perception 
 Part 2
Comparison (Upamana)
6. Comparison (Upamana) 
The Problem 
Is Upamana an Inference? 
Is It a Perception? 
Is It Partly a Perception and Partly a Memory? 
The Nyaya View 
The Evidence of Western Logic : Is Upamana an Immediate Inference? 
Part 3
Non-cognition (Anupalabdhi)
7. Non-cognition (Anupalabdhi) 
The Problem of Anupalabdhi 
The Views of the Prabhakaras and the Samkhyas 
The Views of the Naiyayikas 
The Views of the Bhattas and the Advaitins 
Objections Answered 
The Objects of Non-Perception: The Four Kinds of Non-Existence 
Critical Estimation of Anupalabdhi 
Part 4
Inference (Anumana)
8. Inference (Anumana) 
The Meaning of Anumana 
The Conception of Vyapti 
How Is Vyapti to Be Ascertained? 
The Function of Vyapti: The Psychology of Inference
Does Inference Yield Any New Knowledge? 
The Form of the Syllogism 
The Classification of Inference 
The Psychological Conditions of Inference: The Theory of Pakshata
Part 5
Postulation (Arthapatti)
9. Postulation (Arthapatti) 
The Problem 
Is not Arthapatti an Anumana? 
Are All Inferences Reducible to Arthapatti 
Criticism and Conclusion 
Part 6
Testimony (Shabda)
10. Testimony (Shabda) 
11. The Process of Shabda-jnana 
Sensations of Sound 
12. The Perception of Word Symbols 
How Sound Series Is Perceived? 
The Theory of Sphota 
The Advaita View and Criticism 
13. Words and Meanings 
Words as Symbols 
Is Primary Meaning Particular or Universal?: Five Views 
The Advaita View Critically Considered 
Is Any Word Non-connotative? 
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Meanings 
14. The Sentence and Its Meaning 
The Nature of a Sentence 
Does Construction Precede Expression? Two Views
Conditions of Significant Combination 
The Conception of a Proposition 
Do All Propositions Contain Substantive–Adjective Relation? 
Some Identity Propositions: Advaita View and Western Criticism 
15. The Objective Reference in a Sentence 
16. The Validity of Verbal Knowledge 


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