This revised edition of State, Society and Ecology: Gorakhpur in Transition, 1750–1830, retains the data and structure of the original work but builds upon major parts of the book to update it to current research. The new, revised Introduction, rewritten chapters, extended Bibliography, and newly introduced Appendix aim to provide a greater focus to the issues discussed in this volume. This book examines the specificities and peculiarities of Gorakhpur in the period of transition, viz., c.1750–1830. In keeping with the trend of regional studies, the book reinforces notions of growth and development, continuity and change and thereby widens the transition debate, juxtaposing it with colonial discourse and orientalism. In doing so, its major contribution is its attempt to redefine economic history and focus on new ways of studying the subject. The issues discussed in State, Society and Ecology — ecology and forests; people, their caste compositions and affiliations, their history and culture; economic growth, social change and the changing political traditions — gives it a definite tilt towards social history.