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Tarkashastra

Ek Roop Rekha

The present book is the fifth enlarged edition of the earlier book A Text Book of Logic — An Introduction. The current edition includes additional chapters on Arguments and Explanations, and Dilemma. Like the earlier book, the present book sets forth the principles and procedure ....read below

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About This Book

The present book is the fifth enlarged edition of the earlier book A Text Book of Logic — An Introduction. The current edition includes additional chapters on Arguments and Explanations, and Dilemma. Like the earlier book, the present book sets forth the principles and procedures of elementary Logic in the most simplified way and is specifically designed and intended for the use of undergraduate students. It contains almost all the main topics on Deductive, Inductive and Symbolic Logic prescribed in the syllabi of different universities in the country.

The book attempts to present a clear perspective on Logic as a science of correct reasoning. In the introductory chapter the aim of Logic and the task of a Logician are elaborated. Other topics covered here are Terms, Propositions, Immediate Inference, Syllogism, Boolean Equations, Venn Diagrams, Anti-Logism Theorem, Truth Functions, Truth Table, Deductive Method, Predicate Calculus, Scientific Inductions, Causation, Mill's Methods and Informal Fallacies to mention a few. All the topics are explained with the help of diagrams and lucid examples. Each chapter is followed by plenty of fresh and exclusive exercises for the benefit of students.

  • Binding: : Paperback
  • 13 Digit ISBN : 9788124606490
  • 10 Digit ISBN : 8124606498
  • Edition : Fifth revised edition
  • Year : 2013
  • Pages : x, 374 p.
  • Size : 22
  • Weight (approx.) : 350
  • Bibliographic Details : Bibliography, Index

Preface to the Fifth Edition
Preface to the First Edition 

Part I

1. Introduction  

Subject Matter of Logic    
Mental Processes    
Argument and Explanation    
Form and Matter    
Truth and Validity    
Deduction and Induction    
Exercises  

2. Functions and Uses of Language 

Language Makes Thinking Possible     
Various Functions of Language    
Emotively (Emotionally) Neutral Language    
Agreement and Disagreement    
Exercises  

3. Section A — Proposition: Traditional Account  

Traditional Classification of Propositions    
Categorical Propositions    
Quantity and Quality    
Reduction of the Sentences into     
Standard Logical Form Propositions    
Exercises  

3. Section B — Modern Logicians’ Treatment of Categorical Propositions    

Existential Import    
Boolean Analysis of Categorical Propositions    
John Venn’s Diagrams    
Modern Classification of Propositions    
Modern Classification of Proposition    
Exercises   

4. Terms    

Distribution of Terms    
Quantity of a Proposition           
Quality of a Proposition    
Denotation and Connotation of Terms    
Types of Terms    
Contradictory Terms    
Contrary Terms    
Exercises    

5. Square of Opposition    

Modern Logicians “Square of Opposition”     
Modern “Square of Opposition”    
Exercises    

6. Immediate Inference (Eduction)  

Eduction    
Conversion    
Summary    
Obversion    
Summary    
Contraposition    
Summary    
Solutions:    
Immediate Inference (Eduction) in Modern Logic    
Exercises

7. Section A — Categorical Syllogism   

Figures of Syllogism    
Moods of Syllogism    
Standard Form Categorical Syllogism    
Exercises    

7. Section B — Validity of Categorical Syllogism: Traditional Method    

Rule No. 1    
Rules Related to Distribution of Terms    
Rule No. 2    
Rule No. 3    
Rules of Quality    
Rule No. 4    
Rule No. 5    
Rule of Quantity    
Rule No. 6    
Special Rules of 1st Figure    
Special Rules of 2nd Figure    
Special Rules of 3rd Figure    
Special Rules of 4th Figure    
Exercises  

7. Section C — Validity of Categorical Syllogism  

The Antilogism    
Exercises

7. Section D — Non-categorical Syllogism  

Disjunctive Syllogism     
Hypothetical Syllogism    
Dilemma    
Exercises   

8. Laws of Thought 

Part II

9. Symbolic Logic : Its Nature and Character 

Logical Form and Validity     
Advantages of Using Symbols    
Inference and Implication    
Exercises  

10. Symbolization  

Symbolization of Compound Propositions    
1. Conjunctive     
2. Disjunctive    
3. Implication    
4. Equivalent or biconditional proposition    
Exercises  

11. Truth Function  

Negative Function    
Conjunctive Function    
Disjunctive Function    
Alternative Function    
Implicative Function (Conditional Function)    
Equivalent Function (bi-conditional)
Interdefinability of Truth Functions (Constants)    
Stroke Function    
Exercises    

12. Truth Table Method as Decision Procedure    

Truth Table Method    
Illustrated Statement forms    
Exercises    
Testing the Validity/Invalidity of the Argument
Forms and Arguments by Truth Table Method    
Exercises  

13. Shorter Truth Table Method (Reductio ad absurdum or Indirect Method)  

Exercises    

14. Formal Proof of Validity  

Modus Ponens (M.P.)    
Modus Tollens (M.T.)    
Disjunctive Syllogism (D.S.)    
Hypothetical Syllogism (H.S.)    
Constructive Dilemma (C.D.)    
Conjunction (Conj.)    
Simplification (Simp.)    
Addition (Add.)    
Absorption (Abs.)    
Exercises

15. Section A — Predicate Calculus  

Singular Propositions    
Exercises

15. Section B — Validity    

Exercises     

15. Section C — Invalidity  

Exercises     
Reference  

Part III

16. Induction

Types of Induction  

17. Causation

Plurality Theory of Causation    
Exercises  

18. J.S. Mill’s Experimental Methods    

Method of Agreement    
Method of Difference (Disagreement)    
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference    
Method of Residues    
Method of Concomitant Variation    
Assessment of the Methods    
Exercises 

19. Hypothesis 

Conditions of Valid Hypothesis    
Verification    
Crucial Instances    
Exercises 

Part IV

20. Informal Fallacies 

Formal Fallacies    
Informal Fallacies    
Fallacies of Ambiguity    
Fallacies of Relevance    

The Appeal to Emotion — The Appeal to Pity — The Appeal to Force — The Argument from Ignorance — An Appeal to Inappropriate Authority — The Argument Against a Person —  Fallacy of Accident — The Fallacy of Converse Accident — Fallacy of False Cause — Irrelevant Conclusion   

Fallacies of Presumptions    
Begging the Question     
Fallacy of Complex Question 

Select Bibliography  

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