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Three Acharyas and Narayana Guru

The Ongoing Revaluation of Vedanta

Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhva are considered the three acaryas of South India who commented on the three basic texts of Vedanta, that is, the Upanishads, the Brahma-Sutras and the Bhagavad-Gita, and therefr below

About This Book

Shankara, Ramanuja and Madhva are considered the three acaryas of South India who commented on the three basic texts of Vedanta, that is, the Upanishads, the Brahma-Sutras and the Bhagavad-Gita, and therefrom originated the three major schools within the Vedanta fold -- Advaita, Vishishtha advaita and Dvaita respectively. This volume is concerned with the philosophy of the famous saint-teacher Narayana Guru and his perspectives on the philosophies of the three acaryas.

The book uses the philosophy of Narayana Guru as the guide to study and compare the philosophies of the acaryas. It begins with the life sketches of the three acaryas and discusses their philosophies, especially the various specific viewpoints they maintained and the points on which they disagreed. It explores the ideas of the acaryas on avidya and maya, atomicity of the self, consciousness and the self, tat tvam asi, karma and reincarnation and the ultimate liberation. It also scrutinises their use of terms like that of atha which literally means "now then". It examines the perception of Narayana Guru vis-a-vis the particular philosophical positions in a unified manner. It also contains the full text, transliteration and translation of the original Vedanta-Sutras of Narayana Guru.

The volume will interest students and scholars who are engaged in advanced studies on the philosophy of Vedanta, and persons keen on acquainting themselves with the philosophy of Narayana Guru.

  • Binding: : Hardbound
  • 13 Digit ISBN : 9788124605950
  • 10 Digit ISBN : 8124605955
  • Edition : 1st edition
  • Year : 2011
  • Pages : xii, 449p.
  • Size : 23
  • Weight (approx.) : 800
  • Bibliographic Details : Appendix; Glossary; Bibliography; Index


Part 1
The Lives and Teachings of the Three Acaryas and Narayana Guru

1. Preliminaries 

The Brahma-Sutras and its Commentaries 
The Sutra Style 
After Badarayana 
Shankara and His Followers 
Ramanuja and His Followers 
Madhva and His Followers

2. The Lives of the Three Acaryas and Narayana Guru

The Life of Shankara (ce 788-820) 
The Life of Ramanuja (ce 1017-1137) 
The Life of Madhva (ce 1238-1317) 
A Few Historical Notes 
The Life of Narayana Guru (ce 1854-1928) 

3. The Philosophy of Shankara 

A Summary of Shankara's Philosophy

4. The Philosophy of Ramanuja 

Souls or Cit 
Ramanuja's Three Kinds of Souls 
How do souls become bound? 
Inert Matter or Acit 
God or Ishvara 

5. The Philosophy of Madhva 

The Cosmic System 
Innate Difference 
Spiritual Practices 
Devotion (Bhakti) 
Liberation (Mukti) 
Comparativeness of Innate Bliss 

Part 2
Ideas of the Three Acaryas Unitively Revisualised

6. Avidya and Maya 

Avidya according to Shankara 
Different Levels of Unreality 
Maya and Brahman as Causes 
Neither Existent nor Non-Existent 
The Theory of Five Sheaths 
Looking into the Taittiriya Upanishad 
Looking into the Sarvasara Upanishad 
Looking into the Gaudapada Karika 
Looking into the Vivekacudamani 
Conditioning and Deconditioning of Consciousness 
Looking into the Pancadashi 
Difference in the Epistemological Context 
Ramanuja's Seven Objections 
Avidya in the Ramanuja School 
Avidya in the Madhva School 
The Enigma Acceptable to All 
Avidya and Maya for Narayana Guru

7. The Word Atha 
8. The Atomicity of the Self 
9. Brahman : The Lower and the Higher 

Narayana Guru 
A Way Out 
The Dialectical Way of Narayana Guru 

10. Consciousness and the Self 

Narayana Guru 

11. Tat Tvam Asi 
12. Karma and Reincarnation 

Karma and Reincarnation According to the Acaryas 
Artabhaga's Doubt and the Mystery of Karma 
What is Karma and Who does It? 
Karma and Brahman 
What is Birth and Death? 
Death, a Part of the Life Cycle 
The Two Paths 
A Third Path 
The Paths of Jnanis and Ajnanis 
In the Katha Upanishad 
In the Bhagavad-Gita 
The Case of Yoga-Bhrashta 
As Part of the Perishable 
One Ishvara Alone Continues 
In the Brahma-Sutras 
Birth Determined by Karma 
Good and Evil Actions 
A Summary Review of Karma and Reincarnation 

13. Final Release 

Liberation According to Shankara  
Liberation According to Ramanuja 
Liberation According to Madhva 
Madhva's Concept of Released Souls 
Svarupananda-Taratamya According to Madhva 
Liberation in Narayana Guru's Philosophy 


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