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Tarkshastra -- Ek Roop Rekha

The present book is the fourth enlarged edition of the earlier book A Text Book of Logic -- An Introduction. The current edition includes an additional chapter on Uses of Language and its Functions. Like the earlier book, below

About This Book

The present book is the fourth enlarged edition of the earlier book A Text Book of Logic -- An Introduction. The current edition includes an additional chapter on Uses of Language and its Functions. Like the earlier book, the present book sets forth the principles and procedures of elementary Logic in the most simplified way and is specifically designed and intended for the use of undergraduate students. It contains almost all the main topics on Deductive, Inductive and Symbolic Logic prescribed in the syllabi of different universities in the country.

The book attempts to present a clear perspective on Logic as a science of correct reasoning. In the introductory chapter the aim of Logic and the task of a Logician are elaborated. Other topics covered here are Terms, Propositions, Immediate Inference, Syllogism, Boolean Equations, Venn Diagrams, Anti-Logism Theorem, Truth Functions, Truth Table, Deductive Method, Predicate Calculus, Scientific Inductions, Causation, Mill's Methods and Informal Fallacies to mention a few. All the topics are explained with the help of diagrams and lucid examples. Each chapter is followed by plenty of exercises for the benefit of students.

  • Foreword By :
  • Binding: : Hardbound
  • 13 Digit ISBN : 9788124604274
  • 10 Digit ISBN : 8124604274
  • Edition : Second Impression of the Fourth Edition
  • Year : 2011
  • Pages : xii, 336 p.
  • Bibliographic Details : Bibliography, Index
  • Size : 22 cm
  • Weight (approx.) : 350 gm

Preface to the Fourth Edition
Preface to the Third Edition 
Preface to the Second
Preface to the First Edition

Part I

1. Introduction 

Subject Matter of Logic 
Form and Matter 
Truth and Validity 
Deduction and Induction 

2. Function and Uses of Language 

Language Makes Thinking Possible 
Various Functions of Language
Informative Function
Expressive Function
Directive Function

3. Section A -- Proposition: Traditional Account

Traditional Classification of Propositions 
Categorical Propositions
Quantity and Quality
Reduction of the Sentences into Standard Logical Form Propositions
Exercise 1 

Section B -- Modern Logicians' Treatment of Categorical Propositions

Existential Import  
Boolean Analysis of Categorical Propositions  
John Venn's Diagrams  
Exercise 2 
Modern Classification of Propositions  
Categorical Propositions
Singular Proposition

4. Terms 

Distribution of Terms   
Quantity of a Proposition 
Quality of a Proposition
Denotation and Connotation of Terms
Relation Between Connotation and Denotation  
Types of Terms
Singular and General Terms
Concrete and Abstract
Positive and Negative Terms  
Contradictory terms   
Contrary terms
Collective and Distributive terms 

5. Square of Opposition 

Modern Logicians "Square of Opposition" 
Exercise 3 

6. Immediate Inference (Education) 

Immediate Inference (Eduction) in Modern Logic
Exercise 4 

7. Section A -- Categorical Syllogism

Figures of Syllogism  
Moods of Syllogism 
Standard Form Categorical Syllogism 
Exercise 5 
Exercise 6 

Section B -- Validity of Categorical Syllogism: Traditional Method 

Rule No. 1

Rules Related to Distribution of Terms 

Rule No. 2
Rule No. 3

Rules of Quality 

Rule No. 4   
Rule No. 5

Rule of Quantity  

Rule No. 6

Special Rules of 1st Figure  
Special Rules of 2nd Figure  
Special Rules of 3rd Figure  
Special Rules of 4th Figure 

Exercise 7 

Section C -- Validity of Categorical Syllogism by Modern Method  

Exercise 8 
The Antilogism 
Exercise 9 

Section D -- Non-categorical Syllogism 

Disjunctive Syllogism   
Hypothetical Syllogism
Mixed Hypothetical Syllogism
Pure Hypothetical Syllogism 
Exercise 10 

8. Laws of Thought 

Part II

9. Symbolic Logic : Its Nature and Character

Logical Form and Validity of an Argument 
Advantages of Using Symbols 
Inference and Implication 

10. Symbolization 

Symbolization of Compound Propositions 

1.  Conjunctive
2.  Disjunctive 
3.  Implication 
4.  Equivalent or Biconditional Proposition

Exercise 11 

11. Truth Function 

Negative Function 
Conjunctive Function 
Disjunctive Function 
Alternative Function 
Implicative Function 
Paradox of Material Implication
Equivalent Function 
Interdefinability of Truth Functions (Constants) 
Stroke Function 
Exercise 12 

12. Truth Table Method as Decision Procedure

Truth Table Method 
Illustrated Statement Forms 
Exercise 13 
Testing the Validity/Invalidity of the Argument
Forms and Arguments by Truth Table Method 
Exercise 14 

13. Shorter Truth Table Method (Reductio ad absurdum or Indirect Method)

Exercise 15 

14. Formal Proof of Validity 

Modus Ponens (M.P.) 
Modus Tollens (M.T.)  
Disjunctive Syllogism (D.S.)  
Hypothetical Syllogism (H.S.) 
Constructive Dilemma (C.D.)  
Conjunction (Conj.)  
Simplification (Simp.)  
Addition (Add.)  
Absorption (Abs.) 
Some solved examples 
Exercise 16 

15. Section A -- Predicate Calculus  

Singular Propositions 
Exercise 17 

Section B -- Validity 

Exercise 18

Section C -- Invalidity  

Exercise 19

Part III

16. Induction  

Types of Induction
Introduction by Simple Enumeration
Introduction by Complete Enumeration
Introduction by Analogy
Scientific Introduction

17. Causation

Plurality Theory of Causation

18. J.S. Mill's Experimental Methods 

Method of Agreement  
Method of Difference (Disagreement)   
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference   
Method of Residues   
Method of Concomitant Variation   
Assessment of the Methods  

19. Hypothesis    

Conditions of Valid Hypothesis  
Verification of a Hypothesis 
Proof of a Hypothesis 
Crucial Instances

Part IV

20. Informal Fallacies 

Formal Fallacies   
Informal Fallacies
Verbal Fallacies (Fallacies of Ambiguity) 
Non-verbal Fallacies of Matter (Fallacies of Relevance)

Select Bibliography

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