**Preface to the Fourth Edition**

Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second **Edition **

Preface to the First Edition

**Part I**

1. Introduction

Subject Matter of Logic

Arguments

Form and Matter

Truth and Validity

Deduction and Induction

2. Function and Uses of Language

Language Makes Thinking Possible

Various Functions of Language

Informative Function

Expressive Function

Directive Function

Conclusion

3. Section A -- Proposition: Traditional Account

Traditional Classification of Propositions

Categorical Propositions

Quantity and Quality

Reduction of the Sentences into Standard Logical Form Propositions

Exercise 1

Section B -- Modern Logicians' Treatment of Categorical Propositions

Existential Import

Boolean Analysis of Categorical Propositions

John Venn's Diagrams

Exercise 2

Modern Classification of Propositions

Categorical Propositions

Singular Proposition

4. Terms

Distribution of Terms

Quantity of a Proposition

Quality of a Proposition

Denotation and Connotation of Terms

Relation Between Connotation and Denotation

Types of Terms

Singular and General Terms

Concrete and Abstract

Positive and Negative Terms

Contradictory terms

Contrary terms

Collective and Distributive terms

5. Square of Opposition

Modern Logicians "Square of Opposition"

Exercise 3

6. Immediate Inference (Education)

Education

Conversion

Summary

Observation

Summary

Contraposition

Summary

Solutions

Immediate Inference (Eduction) in Modern Logic

Exercise 4

7. Section A -- Categorical Syllogism

Figures of Syllogism

Moods of Syllogism

Standard Form Categorical Syllogism

Exercise 5

Exercise 6

Section B -- Validity of Categorical Syllogism: Traditional Method

Rule No. 1

Rules Related to Distribution of Terms

Rule No. 2

Rule No. 3

Rules of Quality

Rule No. 4

Rule No. 5

Rule of Quantity

Rule No. 6

Special Rules of 1st Figure

Special Rules of 2nd Figure

Special Rules of 3rd Figure

Special Rules of 4th Figure

Exercise 7

Section C -- Validity of Categorical Syllogism by Modern Method

Exercise 8

The Antilogism

Exercise 9

Section D -- Non-categorical Syllogism

Disjunctive Syllogism

Hypothetical Syllogism

Mixed Hypothetical Syllogism

Pure Hypothetical Syllogism

Exercise 10

8. Laws of Thought

**Part II**

9. Symbolic Logic : Its Nature and Character

Logical Form and Validity of an Argument

Advantages of Using Symbols

Inference and Implication

10. Symbolization

Symbolization of Compound Propositions

1. Conjunctive

2. Disjunctive

3. Implication

4. Equivalent or Biconditional Proposition

Exercise 11

11. Truth Function

Negative Function

Conjunctive Function

Disjunctive Function

Alternative Function

Implicative Function

Paradox of Material Implication

Equivalent Function

Interdefinability of Truth Functions (Constants)

Stroke Function

Exercise 12

12. Truth Table Method as Decision Procedure

Truth Table Method

Illustrated Statement Forms

Exercise 13

Testing the Validity/Invalidity of the Argument

Forms and Arguments by Truth Table Method

Exercise 14

13. Shorter Truth Table Method (Reductio ad absurdum or Indirect Method)

Exercise 15

14. Formal Proof of Validity

Modus Ponens (M.P.)

Modus Tollens (M.T.)

Disjunctive Syllogism (D.S.)

Hypothetical Syllogism (H.S.)

Constructive Dilemma (C.D.)

Conjunction (Conj.)

Simplification (Simp.)

Addition (Add.)

Absorption (Abs.)

Some solved examples

Exercise 16

15. Section A -- Predicate Calculus

Singular Propositions

Exercise 17

Section B -- Validity

Exercise 18

Section C -- Invalidity

Exercise 19

**Part III**

16. Induction

Types of Induction

Introduction by Simple Enumeration

Introduction by Complete Enumeration

Introduction by Analogy

Scientific Introduction

17. Causation

Plurality Theory of Causation

18. J.S. Mill's Experimental Methods

Method of Agreement

Method of Difference (Disagreement)

Joint Method of Agreement and Difference

Method of Residues

Method of Concomitant Variation

Assessment of the Methods

19. Hypothesis

Conditions of Valid Hypothesis

Verification

Verification of a Hypothesis

Proof of a Hypothesis

Crucial Instances

**Part IV**

20. Informal Fallacies

Formal Fallacies

Informal Fallacies

Verbal Fallacies (Fallacies of Ambiguity)

Non-verbal Fallacies of Matter (Fallacies of Relevance)

**Select Bibliography**