The Surya Siddhanta is one of the earliest astronomical texts of the ancient India. Under the tradition of Upanishads, the Surya Siddhanta reveals the knowledge of the planetary motion of the solar system directly given by the Sun god to Mayasura, subsequently passed down in oral form. Later on Varahamihira (ce 505-87) discussed the doctrine of Surya Siddhanta in his book on Pancasiddhantika. The present Hindi translation of the Sanskrit verses of Surya Siddhanta is based on the famous English translations by Reverend Ebenezer Burgess (1860) and Pt. Bapu Deva Sastry (1861).
Significant coverage in the fourteen chapters of the book is on units of time, length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, planetary eastwards movement and sidereal revolution. The lengths of the earth’s diameter, circumference are also given. Eclipses and colour of the moon’s eclipsed portion are mentioned. The appendices provide the modern aspect on these topics. The researchers of ancient astronomy and others may find it an interesting reading.