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Cultural History of Uttarakhand

  Cultural History of Uttarakhand is an out-come of many years of keen observation of the linguistic and cultural phenomena of the whole Himalayan region, right from Ladakh in the west to Bhutan in the ea below

About This Book

  Cultural History of Uttarakhand is an out-come of many years of keen observation of the linguistic and cultural phenomena of the whole Himalayan region, right from Ladakh in the west to Bhutan in the east and an intensive study of ancient Indian literature and of the historical incidents that have taken place in these Central Himalayan regions, particularly in the land termed as Uttarakhand. Though there are some works, both in Hindi and English, on the history and culture of this land, they pertain either to a specific region or to some particular aspect of it. This is for the first time that exhaustive chronological accounts of the history and culture of the inhabitants of Uttarakhand, including various ancient and modern tribes and races, right from Tons and Yamuna in the west to Mahakali/Sarada in the east, and from Bhotantic Himalayan regions in the north to Tarai-Bhabar area in the south, considered to be a 'Cultural Area' of Uttarakhand, have been taken into account for this study, in which an effort has been made to unfold various layers of the history of this land in a comprehensive way.

As such, this volume on the Cultural History of Uttarakhand is supposed to provide a rare opportunity to students, as well as to readers in general, to have an intimate knowledge of various aspects of the cultural history of various tribes and races inhabiting Uttarakhand from pre-historic periods to modern times.

  • Foreword By : Narayan Dutt Tiwari
  • Binding: : Hardbound
  • 13 Digit ISBN : 9788124604342
  • 10 Digit ISBN : 8124604347
  • Edition : 1st edition
  • Year : 2009
  • Pages : xxxi, 417p.
  • Size : 29
  • Weight (approx.) : 1750
  • Bibliographic Details : 1 folded map; 75 Coloured and b/w photographs; Bibliography; Index


Key to Transliteration 
List of Illustrations 
Map of Uttarakhand 

I. The Land and the People 

Nomenclature of Uttarakhand 
Geographical Perspective 
Human Settlement in the Central Himalayas
Archaeological Remains of Early Settlements
Early Aryan Settlements in Uttarakhand 
Uttarakhand at a Glance 

II. The Scope and Sources of the Study 

Problems of Cultural Reconstruction
Sources of Cultural History of Uttarakhand
Cultural Manifestation through Linguistic Elements in Central Pahari 
Cultural Manifestation in the Light of Pronominal Terms of Address 
Importance of Terms of Reference to Kin-related Places of Residence 

III. Historical Retrospection

Ancient Geographical Scenario 
Geographical Divisions (Ancient) 
Ancient Racial Scenario
Political Scenario of Ancient and Medieval Uttarakhand 
Decline of Katyuris
Post Katyuri Historical Scenario of Uttarakhand 
Resume of Earlier Works

1.  The Glory of the Central Himalayas

The Land of Spiritual Merits
The Cradle of Vedic Culture
The Original Home of the Vedas
Centres of Vedic Cultures
The Asramas 
Continuity of Vedic Traditions

2. Culture: Its Formation and Assimilation

Importance of Culture
Culture Defined
Fundamentals of Culture 
Cultural Systems and Sub-systems 
Components of Culture 
Cultural Traditions 
Formation and Manifestation of Cultural Traits 
Cultural Traits 
Transmission of Cultural Traits 
Cultural Patterns 
Cultural Fusion and Assimilation 
Ethnic Acculturation 
Role of the Himalayas in the Enrichment of the Cultural Panorama of Uttarakhand 
Role of Geographical Features and Ecological Environment in   the Formation of the Culture of Uttarakhand 
Cultural Fusion vis-…-vis Uttarakhand 
Acculturation Through Inter-Mixture of Blood 
Problems of Re-Construction of Cultural History

3. Ages and Stages of Cultural Evolution of Uttarakhand

Early Human Habitation in the Himalayas 
Human Habitats 
Primitive Age (Cave Dwellers) 
Neolithic Age 
Burial Practices 
Megalithic Palaeolithic Age Cultural Spectrum of Megalithic and Palaeolithic People
Painted Grey Ware Culture

4. Ethno-Cultural Sub-Strata of Uttarakhand

Proto-historic Races 
Mythical Races 
Struggle for the Supremacy over Himalayan Territories
Subjugation and Denunciation of Non-Aryans 
Characteristics of Asuras 
Asura Culture 
Asuras' Association with Uttarakhand 
Cultural Legacy of Asuras and Danavas in Uttarakhand 
Legacy of Raksasas in the Himalayan Regions 
The Yaksas 
Socio-Cultural Perspective of the Yaksas 
Impact of Yaksas on Himalayan Regions 
Footprints of Yaksas in Uttarakhand 
Cultural Impact of Yaksas 
Socio-Cultural Traits of Gandharvapsaras 
Cultural Relics of Kinnaras

5. Prehistoric Period: Races and Cultures

Cultural Impact of Kolas on Uttarakhand 
Imprints of Kolas in the Central and Western Himalaya 
Linguistic Contribution of Kolas in the Enrichment of Central Pahari Languages
Position of Kiratas in the Central Himalayan Region
Cultural Impact of Kiratas on Uttarakhand 
Footprints of Kiratas in Uttarakhand 
Linguistic Contribution of Kiratas to Central Pahari Languages
Impact of Dravidian Culture on the Pan-Indian, including Uttarakhand Culture
Nagas in the Himalayas 
Nagas in Uttarakhand 
Naga Culture 
Imprints of Nagas in the Himalaya Regions 
Worship and the Places of Worship Associated with Naga 
Iconographic Presentation 

6. The Khasas

Khasas in Ancient Literature 
Epic Period 
Historical Period 
Advent of Khasas in the Indian Sub-continent and Subsequent Expansion
Expansion of the Khasas in the Indian Sub-Continent
Himalayan Habitats of the Khasas 
North-Western India 
Khasas in the Western and Central Himalaya 
Characteristics of the Khasas 
Expertise in the Mountain Warfare 
Racial Affiliation of the Khasas 
Kinfolks of the Khasas 

The Daradas -- The Kashmiras -- The Haihayas -- Ascendancy of Khasas -- Political Supremacy -- Economic Prosperity -- Social Status -- Decline of Khasas -- Political Level -- Social Decline 
 Social Organization of the Khasas

Caste System and Social Stratification 
Social Institutions 

Family -- Lineage and Clan -- Marriage -- Forms of Marriage -- Dissolution of Marriage

Socio-Cultural Practices of the Khasas 

Matriarchal Social Organization -- Sautiya Bant -- Equal Rights of Real and Unreal Sons 

Khasa Culture: A Repository of Ancient Aryan Culture

Bride-price -- Levirate -- Substitution of the Brother-in-law as Husband (Tekava) -- Widow Marriage -- Adoption of Son-in-law as a Heir/inheritor -- Additional Share of Eldest Brother (Jethon/Jethod) 

Position of the Women Among the Khasas 
Status of a Woman 
Contribution of the Khasas to the Culture of Uttarakhand 
Socio-Cultural Changes Among the Khasas 
Process of Change 
Footprints of the Khasas

Central Asia -- North Western India -- Western Himalaya -- Central Himalaya -- Jammu -- Himachal Pradesh -- Uttarakhand 

7. Early Historical Races


Kunindas in Prehistoric Days -- Kuninda Territory -- Emergence of Kunindas as a Political Power -- Decline of Kuninda Supremacy 
 Kusanas -- Kusanas in Uttarakhand -- Historical Background of Kusanas -- Dominance of Kusanas -- Decline of Kusanas 

Daradas and Tusaras

Original Home of Daradas -- Racial Affiliation of Daradas 

Linguistic Affinity between Dardic and Pahari Languages 

Dardic Languages -- Torwali -- Kohistani -- Shina -- Kashmiri 

General Phonetic Tendencies Between Kumauni and Dardic Languages  

Behaviour of /r/ -- Interchangeability of /r/ and /r/d/ 


Original Home of Sakas -- Racial Affiliation of Sakas -- Advent of Sakas in India 

Sakas in Uttarakhand 
Socio-Cultural Background of Sakas 
Cultural Contribution of Sakas to Uttarakhand 
Minor Ethnic Groups 
Yavanas (Greeks) 
Smaller Principalities 
Rulers of Mitra Dynasty 
Varman Rulers of Brahmapura 

8. New Era of Cultural Evolution

Ascendancy of Katyuris 
Growth of Art and Architecture Architecture 
Metallic Craft 
Religious Expansion 
Post-Katyuri Cultural Scenario

9. Panorama of Folk Culture

Folk Religion 
Religious Faith and Beliefs 
Folk Beliefs and Superstitions 
Folk Art 

10. Socio-Cultural Changes

Cultural Change 
Forces Activising Social Changes 
Socio-Cultural Changes Among Tribal Communities
Socio-cultural Changes Among Scheduled Castes 
Plates Selected Bibliography 


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