Ancient Indian thought system, well known for its relentless argumentation on varied contentious issues, paved the way for maturing deep philosophical thoughts, and scientific and technological inventions. This volume Vedanta Anvikshiki, Science and Philosophy in Contemporary Perspective, which resonates the current expectations from Vedanta in a fast-changing world, is the proceedings of the 21st edition of International Congress of Vedanta organized by the Center of Indic Studies, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth during 11-13 July 2013. The volume presents thirty-one research papers from reputed scholars on wide-ranging topics like metaphysics, knowledge and hermeneutics, science and technology in ancient texts, interpretation of key texts, digital libraries, yoga and ayurveda, spirituality and science, interfaith dialogue, Indian cosmology and psychology, Vedantic pedagogy, history, culture, social systems, corporate world, governance, music and consciousness studies. These papers present vast treasures of India’s knowledge systems and offer potential for multidisciplinary research. It would be of immense value to the students and scholars of Vedanta, and would stimulate them for more discussions and debates on Vedantic traditions and their contemporary relevance.