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Fredrick W. Bunce

Nationality: USA

Gender: male

Date Of Brith: 28/06/1935

Present Position: Professor Emeritus (Retired)

Awards Received:

Humanities Grant to Catalogue the Collection of Persian Carpets and Art of St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN, 1972.
National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar, “Ut Pictura Poesis” and the Interrelationship of the Arts, Professor Selig, Columbia University, New York, 1975.
Reactor, South Dakota State Humanities Conference, Dakota Wesleyan University, Mitchell, SD, 1975.
South Dakota State University, Mini-Sabbatical Grant, Research: Marcantonio’s I Sedici Modi and Aretino’s I Sonetti Lussuriosi, The Kinsey Institute, Indiana University, 1976.
National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar, The Art of Louis XV and Mme. de Pompadour, Professor Posner, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, 1979.
Sabbatical Leave, South Dakota State University, Fall 1979.
Co-Chairperson, Marcantonio and Aretino: The Foundations of Modern Eroticism Session, American Association for Italian Studies, Indiana University, 1984.
Chairperson, Panel: The Erotic Motif: Its Range and Concerns, Mid-America College Art Association Convention, Indianapolis, 1985.
Sabbatical Leave, Indiana State University, Fall 1986.
Reviewer of Proposed Texts for Holt, Reinhart and Winston, Inc., New York, 1985-1988.
Curator, The “Diamond Way” and other Ways: A Collection of works which represent Vajrayana and Theravada Buddhism featuring the Thankas of Karma Thupten, aka Karma Lama (Tibetan), Turman Gallery, Indiana State University, 1991.
Sabbatical Leave, Indian State University, 1993.

Academic & Professional Qualifications:

Bachelor B.S. Art Ed Literature Macalester College 1957
Master M.F.A. (Sculpture) Crambrook Acaemy of Art 1958
Ph.D Comparative Arts Ohio University 1979


Position(s) Held:

1 Professor of Art 1980 1997
2 Chairperson 1980 1988
3 Head, Department of Art 1973 1979
4 Assistant Professor of Art 1970 1973
5 Assistant Professor of Art History 1968 1970
6 Teaching Fellow, Department of Comparative Arts 1966 1968
7 Instructor in Beginning Painting, and Drawing 1964 1965
8 Instructor: Summer School 1960 1961
9 Art Instructor and Speech Coach 1960 1963
10 Student Teaching Assistant 1955 1957


About the Author

Fredrick W. Bunce, a PhD and a cultural historian of international eminence, is an authority on ancient iconography and Buddhist arts. He has been honoured with prestigious awards/commendations and is listed in Who’s Who in American Art and the International Biographical Dictionary, 1980. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Art, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana. He has authored the following books all published by D.K. Printworld: 
Buddhist Textile of Laos, Lan Na and the Isan - The Iconography of Design Elements.
A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography.
An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons (2 vols.).
An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Demons and Heroes (3 vols.).
The Iconography of Architectural Plans - A Study of the Influence of Buddhism and Hinduism on Plans of South and South-east Asia.
Islamic Tombs in India - The Iconographical and Genesis of their Design.
Monuments of India and the Indianized States.
The Mosques of the Indian Subcontinent - Their Development and Iconography.
Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices - An Iconographic Consideration.
Numbers - Their Iconographic Consideration in Buddhist and Hindu Practices.
Royal Palaces, Residences and Pavilions of India - An Iconographic Consideration.
The Sacred Dichotomy: Thoughts and Comments on The Duality of Female and Male Iconography in South Asia and the Mediterranean.
The Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and other Deities - A Unique Pantheon.
The Yantra of Deities and their Numerological Foundations - An Iconographic Consideration.

Details of Books/Monographs

1 An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons D.K. Printworld 1994
2 A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography D.K. Printworld 1996
3 An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demi-Gods, Godlings and Demons D.K. Printworld 2000
4 The Yantras of Deities and Their Numerological Foundations D.K. Printworld 2000
5 The Tibetan Iconography of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and other Deities D.K. Printworld 2002
6 The Iconography of Architectural Plans D.K. Printworld 2002
7 Numbers D.K. Printworld 2002
8 Islamic Tombs in India D.K. Printworld 2003
9 Buddhist Textiles of Laos, Lan Na & the Isan D.K. Printworld 2003
10 Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices D.K. Printworld 2004
11 Royal Palaces, Residences and Pavilions of India D.K. Printworld 2006
12 The Sacred Dichotomy D.K. Printworld 2006
13 Monuments of India and the Indianized States D.K. Printworld 2006


Details of Articles

1. Critical Reviews, Thoughts and Afterthoughts, KESD-FM, Brookings, SD. Weekly September 1977 through May 1980.
2. Pietro Aretino’s “I Sonetti Lussuriosi”: sometimes known as “La Corona di Cazzi”, with Original etchings by G.X.C., hand set and printed by G. Capdi Press, 1980, 20 copies, copyright 1980.
3. Listing of Paper and Abstract: “The Influence of Aretino’s I Sonetti Lussuriosi and Marcantonio’s I Sedici Modi on Nogaret’s L’Aretin Francais with Illustrations by Elluin after Borel, The Heliconian, Vol. VII, No. 1, Fall, 1981.
4. Verlaine’s “Hombres”, with original woodcuts by G.X.C., handset and printed by G. Capdi Press, 1984, 20 copies, copyright 1984.
5. Verlaine’s “Rigals” and “Reddition”, with original linocuts by G.X.C., hand set and printed by G. capdi Press, 1985, 20 copies, copyright 1985.
6. Article, “The Erotic Motif: Its Range and Concerns”, Arts Insight, Vol. 7, No. 10, January 1986.
7. Aristophane’s “Lysistrata”, with original etching by G.X.C., hand sent and printed by G. Capdi Press, 1987, 20 copies, copyright 1987.
8. Les Oeuvres Libre of F.W.B., G. Capdi Press, 1987, 5 copies, copyright 1987.
9. Selected Epigrams from “Priapeia”, with original linocuts by G.X.C., hand set and printed by G. Capdi Press, 1988, 20 copies, copyright 1988.
10. Lyliane D. Mathieu-Kerns and Fredrick W. Bunce, “Intimations of Paphos: The Influence of Aretino and Marc-Antonio on Nogaret and Elluin”, Italian Culture, Vol. VI, 1985 (released 1988), pp. 53-75.
11. The “Diamond Way” and other Ways: A collection of works which represent Vajrayana and Theravada Buddhism featuring the Thankas of Karma Thupten, aka Karma Lama (Tibetan), (catalogue) Indiana State University, 1991.
12. “Maha-Vihara Dharmapala: Its Decendents”, Kalakalpa: Journal of the Indira Gandhi National Center for the Arts, Vol. I, No. 2, New Delhi 2005, pp. 241-270.
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A Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography

Man has, from times immemorial, exhibited a striking predilection for symbols. Which, through written words, drawings, sculptures or other visual/iconographic representations, seem to have shaped much of mankind's culture. From the simplest, yet eloquent, drawings on the walls of the prehistoric caves, through the sophistication of Egyptian imagery, the sculptural embroidered wealth of a Khajuraho, or the convoluted elegance of a Mannerist painting -- all interweave iconographic imagery so inextricably into their very core that, without its visual/didactic richness, these would be a mere shell, a hollow vanity! Veritably, our cultural scenograph will lose much of its aesthetic charm and meaning, once it is bereft of iconography.

Over the centuries, Buddhisn and Hinduism (Brahmanical) have built up pantheon after pantheon, with a bewildering number of divinities, in varying forms and emanations and, significantly, with myriad iconographic attributes. Which, for both their definable precision and complex multi-interpretationality, not merely seem paradoxical, but may baffle even the specialists and the initiated as well. Here is just the Dictionary trying, for the first time, to help you see into the 'divine paradoxes' of Buddhist-and-Hindu iconography and, simultaneously, interpret the very nuances of their iconic language. Painstakingly compiled by a distinguished scholar of Oriental/Buddhist Art, it is a Buddhist-and-Hindu Iconologia par excellence, spelling out vividly thousands of iconic representations, which these two of the world's oldest, sustained faiths have left for all times to come.

In its monumental effort to explain/interpret Buddhist-and-Hindu visual/conceptual symbols, images, objects, concepts and rites, the Dictionary extends the definition of iconography to embrace numerous peripheral/other terms, which either have immediate relevance to iconographic principles or are hard to dispense with in visualizing the true import of different icons. Dr. Bunce's work has, at its base, his own first-hand observation of various temples in India, Nepal and several Southeast Asian countries; besides a number of authentic sources: both illustrated and verbal.

Flawlessly illustrated: from cover to cover, it includes a compellingly readable introduction, an easy-to-understand User's Guide, extensive bibliographic references, and two well-planned lists to facilitate location of its each headword, each entry. Which all reinforce the Dictionary's indispensability to the specialists and the non-specialists who have often to grope for the essentials of Buddhist/Hindu iconographic complexities.

An Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities, Demigods, Godlings, Saints and Demons

Beginning with a few aniconic symbols, like foot prints, a throne, the Bo tree or stupas, in the prechristian Indian art, Buddhism came to evolve a variety of picturesque representations of a Self-Existent, Superimmanent Principle: in myriad forms and emanations that range from the superbly magnificent to sheerly grotesque. Endowed with diverse iconographic attributes, Buddhist deities/saints/demons have grown, over the rolling centuries, into bewildering numbers, legions. Which all, leave alone the neophytes, not even the best of scholars can recognize! The names of the divinities and their cultural/regional perceptions -- owing largely to the plurality of Buddhist pantheons, have only gone on to further complicate their identification.

Unveiled, for the first time, in the pages of this Encyclopaedia, is a panorama of Buddhist deities, demigods, godlings, saints and demons, with spotlight on the concretized, recognizable forms and the subtle symbolism they involve. In its nearly 8000 alphabetically arranged articles of varying lengths, it mixes gods and demons, bhiksus and btsans, the aesthetic and the grotesque -- in fact, nearly the whole range of good and evil forces which the inspired among the adherents of the Buddhist faith conceived so ingeniously!

Professor Bunce has painstakingly marshalled a wealth of data from authoritative language sources, notably, Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, Newari/Nepalese, Chinese, Mongolian, Japanese, Siamese/Thai, Annamese/Viet Namese, Javanese, and Sinhalese, in his effort to capture almost the entire framework of Buddhist divinities: a multi-pantheonic framework, together with its classes, groups and hierarchies, ranging from Adi-Buddha to Arhats and yet beyond. Himself a distinguished scholar of Oriental/Buddhist Art, Dr. Bunce incorporates, in scrupulous detail, the iconographic attributes of deities: like colours, heads/eyes, hands, objects held, body, feet, asanas, mudras, ornaments, vahanas, emanations, and whether calm or wrathful -- which, with a generous supplement of illustrations: about 300 elegant line-drawings and several colour plates, highlight the distinctiveness of each individual figure. Also included in the Encyclopaedia are user's guide, glossaries (of asanas, mudras and attributes), identification charts, a hierarchic table, and bibliographic references.

Growing from years of Professor Bunce's persevered research and study, this compilation is certainly the first ever to draw together most of the Buddhist divinities/mythological characters, in their distinctly recognizable forms. And is, therefore, indispensable to both the specialists and non-specialists trying to identify each from a whole host of these figural representations.

Vol. 1: ISBN: 812460018X

1998; xxiv, 1 to 640 p.; 286 Line-drawings; 24 Colour plates; Bibliography; 29 cm.

Vol. 2: ISBN: 8124600198

1998; xviii, 641 to 1151 p.; 286 Line-drawings; 24 Colour plates; Bibliography; 29 cm.

An Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities, Demi-Gods, Godlings, Demons and Heroes (3 Vols. set)

The Hindu pantheon is a bewildering profusion: a mix of deities, demons, and heroes, which perplexes not only the neophytes, but even the best of scholarly minds. Yet, despite the multitude of its divinities, Hinduism isn't a polytheistic religion. Worshipped over countless generations in innumerable homes and temples, these deities are, in affect, likened to "the many facets of a single crystal" -- concretizing, as they do, the basic Hindu world view of an Ultimate Spirituality that is implicit in diverse attributes or both Nature and human experience.

In sheer volume and imagery, in scope and variety, no other culture has produced the kinds of mythological characters and incidents that are to be met within the Hindu Puranic literature and tradition. As one delves into the complexities and interconnections of names and nuances, exploits and genealogies, one gets a staggering view of an eerie, yet magnificent world! Which this Encyclopaedia tries to unveil in its near entirety.

Traversing the marvellous maze of Hindu iconography, Professor Fredrick W. Bunce: a distinguished scholar of Oriental Art, here draws together myriad iconic representations of gods and godlings, demons and miscreants, fair maidens and grotesque witches, noble princes and heartless tyrants, ascetic saints and lustful sages, cosmic strides and incestual liaisons, jealous gods and forgiving ones, births from breast and from the mind -- all these and many more that are painted on the creative canvas of Hindu pantheon. The author highlights each pantheonic figure in his/her concretized, recognisable form, spelling out the very nuances of iconic language that have gone into the shaping of Hindu images.

Supported by beautiful visual material, besides exceedingly useful charts, tables and diagrams, Professor Bunce's is veritably a monumental excercise providing both the specialists and non-specialists with an invaluable key to explore the essential import of Hindu deity images, their complexity, their beauty -- in fact, a whole culture.

Vol. 1: ISBN: 8124601461

2000; xxviii, 1 to 693 p.; 231 Line-drawings; 250 B/w plates; 29 cm.

Vol. 2: ISBN: 812460147X

2000; xiv, 694 to 1371 p.; 231 Line-drawings; 250 B/w plates; 29 cm.

Vol. 3: ISBN: 8124601488

2000; xiv, xiv, 1372 to 1627 p.; 231 Line-drawings; 250 B/w plates; 29 cm.

Buddhist Textiles of Laos, Lan Na the Isan

Textiles from Laos, Lan Na and the Isan are prized for their artistic brilliance and aesthetic beauty. They speak volumes on a weaving tradition that has evolved through centuries and shaped the socio-cultural life of the people associated with it.

This book studies the iconography of the design elements typically employed by craftspersons of textiles from these areas: it deals with their art of weaving, various textile forms to be found in the region and the suitable and inherently powerful motifs woven. With numerous splendid illustrations of the designs, it involves study of design elements on articles of daily use as well as those used for ceremonial purposes and the kind of forms and iconography depicted -- like ancestor figures, animal and plant forms, water creatures, objects used in ceremonies and geometric forms. Viewing Buddhism as the prime influence upon the objects though Hinduism is also an important referent, it explores the symbols the design elements involve and their many meanings and the dimensions they encompass -- their fertility-related, religious and universal associations, for instance. The designs considered in the study are based upon the square grid and the design elements are shown in the typical graph form employed by weavers. It also gives Indian (Sanskrit) and Thai equivalents for English terms of plant and animal species and clarifies a number of terms all of which make this painstakingly-conducted research a thorough work on the subject.

The book will be very useful to scholars of Textile designs, Buddhist art and culture; and the cultural traditions of South-east Asia.

Crossess -- Christian and Otherwise

In “top-of-the-mind” reading, crosses are the iconographic representation of Christianity, though cross became an embodiment of Christian iconography only after the fifth century ce. In this volume, the author unveils the existence of 500 plus crosses, of which around 300 are of ecclesiastical, heraldic or mundane crosses. Most of these cruciforms were  introduced before the twentieth century.
Cruciform was antecedent of Christianity. There were numerous cruciform Hindu and Buddhist temples, even before the advent of Christianity and thus these hold no Christian ecclesiastical relevance. Of late many churches, cathedrals and basilicas applied cruciform to their structure and look in conformity with the Christian iconography. This enunciates the endless design possibilities of cruciform. The book discusses the pre-Christian iconographic cruciform Hindu and Buddhist temple structures and in detail the Christian cross iconography and the varied types of crosses. It delves deep into the numerous forms of Latin and Greek crosses, mainly from the ecclesiastical and heraldic viewpoint. Crosses adorned ecclesiastical, military, professional and trade implications, and were carved on shields and coats of arms.
This volume also addresses other categories of crosses such as solar crosses, saltire crosses and miscellaneous crosses though they too have occasional ecclesiastical and heraldic implications. The book thus gives a fair account of the emergence, use and application of cruciforms until the twentieth century.

Islamic Tombs in India

The work by an Indological scholar who has studied different architectural traditions of the world covers the architecture and iconography of some 36 Islamic tombs in India spanning a period of over 500 years from c. ad 1230 to 1754. It begins with a brief historical background to the Islamic rule in northern India and a discussion on burial practices and tomb types of the time to further understanding of the underlying concept of construction and functions of the tombs.

Abounding in numerous line drawings of plans and elevations, and figures, it examines the influence of different traditions -- Buddhist and Hindu as well as other Asian and African and Mediterranean traditions -- on evolution of the form of Islamic tombs. It makes a detailed examination of the Indo-Islamic tombs under consideration: their description, size, plan and elevation including the interior space and application of the mandala patterns over the tomb structures, the techniques of construction, masonry and artisanship employed in them. It explains the place and relevance of each monument in the overall scheme of Indo-Islamic architectural development and growth as well as the importance of each by itself. It delves into the religious, philosophical and mathematical bases of the architecture and its application to tomb-building. The research also involves a comparative study of Indo-Islamic tombs vis-a-vis other architectural marvels of the world -- Islamic and non-Islamic.

The book will be extremely relevant to scholars and students of Indian, particularly Indo-Islamic, iconography and those interested in Indo-Islamic cultural traditions in general.

Monuments of India and the Indianized States

This volume presents the plans of temples, tombs, palaces and pavilions found in the Indian subcontinent and the Indianised states of Java, the Khmer, Pagan, Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. They contain detailed diagrams of plans of over 380 structures along with a brief note on each plan that covers the various segments/sections of each monument. The plans are precise and are presented along with their elevations which are proportional, i.e., depict major architectural forms and masses. The monuments covered, of the period third century bc to ce 1854, pertain to different regions of India and different periods and dynasties in Indian history. They include famous structures like the cave monasteries at Ajanta, Sanchi temples, Rajasthani temples, the Lal Qila and the Taj Mahal as well as other lesser-known buildings. Monuments of the Mughals, the Sultanate kings, the Lodis, Tughlaqs and Vijayanagar kings are among the Indian structures included.

The book will be useful for scholars of Buddhist, Hindu and Islamic architecture with particular reference to South Asian and South-East Asian regions.

The Iconography of Architectural Plans

Over the rolling centuries, Buddhism and Hinduism, two of the world's oldest sustained faiths, came to evolve a complex, yet precisely defining, iconic language: not just for figural representations, but for the architectural plans of their temples and monuments as well -- a language that allows interpretations of geometric proportions. Here is the first ever effort to brilliantly unravel the iconic idiom involved in the architectural plans of Buddhist and Hindu temples and monuments of India and the "Indianized" States of Southeast Asia.

With his indepth surveys of diverse 'Buddhic' and 'Hindic' temples in India, Sri Lanka, Java (Indonesia), Kambuja, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and even Malaysia, the author shows how the basic element in their architecture: the PLAN -- conceived within a cosmological framework -- was fraught with iconographic import and input, necessitating the guidance of authoritative compendia, like the Manasara and the Mayamata, the arcane knowledge of the sthapati (priest-architect), and many other complex procedures which all were steeped in symbolism. In analysing the architectural plans of these temples, Professor Bunce also highlights the various related iconographic considerations, like orientation, basic geometric forms, construction methods, rules and ratios, the non-congregational necessity, the high place as a consideration as well as the cave -- besides a number of viable "influences" which exert various amounts of control, e.g., textual, philosophic/theologic, numerological, astrological/astronomical, 'regionality' and, most importantly, the mandala.

Generously supported by visual material comprising as many as 400 figures and line-drawings, Professor Bunce's book is veritably a monumental, off-beat exercise of enormous interest to iconographers as well as the historians/specialists of South and Southeast Asian temple architecture.

The Iconography of Water

While numerous Indian monuments are well known in the annals of architectural research and excavation, a category of monuments – baoli, bawadi, kere, kulam, kunda, talao, tanka, wav and zing – was neglected in the oeuvres of architects and art. A few are familiar with the splendid beauty of the Surya Tank, Modhera; the vertiginous Canda Baoli, Abhaneri; the incomparable Rani-ki Wav, Patan; the magnificent Kalyani Tank, Hulikere; and the beautiful Rudabai-ni Wav, Adalaj. Thousands of such monuments are excellent in architectural beauty and design, apparently based on their primary utility – drinking, bathing, religious purification and ornamental (recreation).
Water plays a quintessential role in the life of man. Its harvesting, preservation and careful use are of paramount importance, especially in those regions where rains are scanty. Thus took place the construction of these artificial water bodies. Many of them are within the precincts of temples and mosques, built in a time span of seventh to twentieth century ce.
This volume, devoted to the study of water monuments, is heavily loaded with the design of various structures and other vital information. Every detail in this book is assiduously analysed, compared and rechecked to present the dimensions, proportions and relationships of each of the various elements of the structures. Thus it unravels a number of keys by which others can unlock the mysteries and beauties of these neglected monuments.
It can be a precious collection for architects, historians, researchers and anyone who loves water bodies.